Deep Learning Follow-up Activities
available to Workshop Participants
through Workshop proximity to
Experts in Deep Learning concur that
Deep Learning takes place most naturally, easily, effectively and meaningfully when the learning occurs as part of “life living”
which engages the participant on multiple levels
as part of life, entertainment or leadership activities
Therefore, while our Shakespeare Educational Workshops and Shakespeare Festivals are separate projects, we carefully design our educational workshops
to take place in close proximity to the Festival, where multiple opportunities for Workshop participants to “live” their learning of Shakespeare appreciation exist.
We also take the extra step of providing Workshop participants with special invitations and passes to these follow-up learning activities.
The follow up learning activities that will be available to Workshop participants at our 2010 Festival (2011 is similar) include:
Deep Learning Follow up
Notes (ALL ACTIVITIES FREE unless otherwise noted)
Mainstage full-length Shakespearean Play
This play presents the full length version of the work studied in the workshop
Pre-show 30 minute Director’s Discussions
Interactive discussions include Director’s Choices in the Play, Actors Interpretation Choices, Set and Costume Choice Discussions, etc
Pre-show, 30 minute
“Shakespeare in World Cultures” Discussions
Interactive discussions are presented around Shakespeare using a lens from the Asian Culture, the Latino Culture, and the African American Culture, presented by Scholars themselves members of those cultures, in association with various other
VIP activities hosted at the Festival
by leadership groups from those cultures
Post Show Audience Talk-back on stage with Actors
Audience is invited to come directly up to the stage to ask questions of the Actors
Post Show Sonnet Slam
In association with our Young Professional’s night: Audience is invited to do sonnet readings/presentations
Pre-show Family Night Children’s story reading by Author of nationally-published Shakespeare book
Iowa Author Cynthia Mercati will provide readings and facilitate discussion around her new nationally published children’s book: “Shakespeare and Me”
Festival Volunteer opportunities
Workshop participants are offered opportunities to volunteer in theatre-specific tasks backstage at the Festival, to provide hands-on learning about the world of theatre
Discounted opportunities for Shakespeare Festival memberships
Discounts are provided to Workshop participatnts for year-long Festival memberships, offering year-round opportunities to attend Shakespeare activities and plays
Referrals to national Shakespeare chat rooms, twitter contests
Each Workshop participant receives a list of Chat room opportunities to engage in follow up discussion about Shakespeare – and info about fun national Twitter contests such as “Talk like Shakespeare” week.
ISE ARTISTIC PHILOSOPHY and TEACHING STRATEGIES
REGARDING ISE LEARNING GOALS: Recognizing that learning takes place within an entire context of life learning, academic learning, and social learning, the ISE recognizes that learning goals can be neither created nor understood in a vacuum. For learning objectives to be meaningful, they must relate to an entire schema of learning- especially life learning. In short, Workshop materials can’t be presented in a vacuum.
Therefore, to provide judges with an ability to evaluate excellence across the entire arena of teaching and artistic work, the ISE has compiled the following materials from our soon-to-be unveiled new website.
Table of Contents of this packet:
LEARNING GOALS AND ASSESSEMENT:
- List of ISE Deep Learning Follow up activities that supplement our Deep Learning Workshops: (Top page)
- Defining and fostering “Deep Learning”; PAGE 3
- Deep Learning related to issues of assessment: PAGE 4 – 6
INCLUDES: Defining Learning
- Practical Strategies for infusing Deep Learning into Workshops PAGE 7
- Assessment approaches that support Deep Learning PAGE 10
- Measuring Deep Learning Outcomes PAGE 15
- References for Deep Learning and Assessment PAGE 17
- ISE Learning Objectives PAGE 21
- Integrating ISE Learning Objectives into other life learning goals PAGE 21-23
- Integrating ISE Learning Objectives into other communication goals PAGE 24
- Integrating ISE Learning Objectives into general arts learning goals PAGE 25
- Integrating ISE Learning Objectives into broad theatre learning goals PAGE 27
- Deep Learning Assessment considerations PAGE 30
ISE SAMPLE CURRICULUM:
- Overview of ISE Curriculum and Curriculum Resources PAGE 32
- Sample General ISE Curriculum PAGE 37
- Sample ISE Lesson Plan for Workshops PAGE 48 - 50
ISE youth educational programming is offered
in ongoing memory of two remarkable young men
who both died tragically young
- yet already had gifted the world with their amazing presence on stage as theatre artists,
- and in life as remarkable people,
- changing many lives:
Mr. Chris Hade and Mr. Jason Larche
THE IOWA SHAKESPEARE EXPERIENCE (The ISE)
Towards fostering “Deep Learning”
The term ‘deep learning’ began to be used in the 1980s when Noel Entwistle and colleagues published research that distinguished between something they called “deep” versus “surface” learning.
The Iowa Shakespeare Experience (ISE) subscribes to the following working definition of “deep learning”, from the INET (International Networking for Educational Transformation): “Deep learning is secured when, through personalization, the conditions of student learning are transformed.”
In sum, Deep Leaning occurs when the student has the intention to understand ideas or learn for their own purposes, or for themselves as people. This can be called “learning for living”. By contrast, when students are learning “for the test”, have little life interest in what they are learning, or are learning merely to cope with course requirements, surface learning is what tends to occur.
According to Houghton (2004), simply stated, deep learning involves the critical analysis of new ideas, linking them to already known concepts and principles, and leads to understanding and long-term retention of concepts so that they can be used for problem solving in unfamiliar contexts. Deep learning promotes understanding and application for life. In contrast, surface learning is the tacit acceptance of information and memorization as isolated and unlinked facts. It leads to superficial retention of material for examinations and does not promote understanding or long-term retention of knowledge and information.
USING CONCEPTS OF DEEP LEARNING IN A TEACHING STRATEGY
Deep learning can be most effective when combined with other student-centered theoretical strategies designed to enhance learning, such as using information about individualized student learning styles, taking a multiple intelligences approach, seeking to foster emotional intelligence, approaching teaching with knowledge of how the brain works, mapping for learning, and working towards goals like Guy Claxton’s 4 Rs’ (resilience, resourcefulness, reflectiveness and reciprocity
The ISE believes that one of the most helpful ways to use the concept of “deep learning” is to conceive of deep learning as occurring through various gateways which tend to foster a more personalized, more meaningful interaction with the material being learned. The question educators must ask is: How can we work across gateways in a systematic way to ensure that various paths to learning complement one another?”
INET identifies the following examples of deep learning “gateways” which are used by the ISE:
• Relating idea to previous knowledge and experience
• Looking for patterns and underlying principles
• Examining logic and argument cautiously and critically
• Becoming actively interested in course content
Working with the teacher and other students to help plan and direct the class (“Student Voice”)
• Studying without reflecting on purpose or strategy
• Treating the course as unrelated bits of knowledge
• Memorizing facts and procedures routinely
DEEP LEARNING AND ASSESMENT FOR LEARNING:
WHAT IS LEARNING?
Conceptions of Learning
“Learning” means different things to different people. Säljö (1979) classified the conceptions held by respondents in his interview-based study into five categories:
- Learning as a quantitative increase in knowledge. Learning is acquiring information or “knowing a lot”
- Learning as memorizing. Learning is storing information that can be reproduced.
- Learning as acquiring facts, skills and methods that can be retained and used as necessary.
- Learning as making sense or abstracting meaning. Learning involves relating parts of the subject matter to each other and to the real world.
- Learning as interpreting and understanding reality in a different way. Learning involves comprehending the world by re-interpreting knowledge.
There is a clear qualitative shift between conceptions 3 and 4. It has been argued that 1, 2 and 3 are views which underpin surface learning strategies, while 4 and 5 relate to deep learning.
ASSESMENT FOR LEARNING
using deep learning methodologies
(International Networking for Educational Transformation)
When using Deep Learning concepts within the assessment process, assessment for learning seeks to develop learners through handing over to them areas of teaching and learning that have traditionally been regarded as the intellectual property of the teacher.
Such strategies as sharing with students lesson objectives, outcomes and the criteria by which their work will be judged engages and empowers students. Key to the effectiveness of learning to learn programmes is the development of meta-cognitive skills, in other words thinking about and reflecting on one’s own learning. Through the development of meta-cognition students are encouraged to monitor, evaluate, control and reflect on their own learning, thus making a powerful contribution towards their development as confident and independent learners.
DEEP LEARNING ASSESMENT RELIES ON TRACKING INTERACTIONS
BETWEEN THE GATEWAYS
(LEARNING TO LEARN):
There are three gateways to learning which taken together, indicate that deep learning may have occurred, so the involvement of the student in passing through these gateways must be examined in order to assess whether deep learning may be occurring.
But there are overlaps and interactions between these gateways which are complex.
The three gateways in isolation can have positive impacts on students and on the relationships between students and teachers. However, when schools explore the interactions between the gateways, they move towards deep learning.
For example, student voice (giving students a “say” in the curriculum or process for running a school or class) has clear links to both learning to learn and to assessment for learning. If a school is to implement assessment for learning successfully, it is essential that students and teachers develop successful working relationships. They also need a shared language of learning (developed through learning to learn), which enables students to engage with the process. Such relationships and the confidence to speak with teachers about learning issues can be developed through student voice.
INTERDEPENDENT GATEWAYS WHICH STIMULATE DEEP LEARNING
The links between learning to learn and assessment for learning require the development of meta-cognitive skills. Both gateways encourage students to think about their learning and the ways in which it is developing. Both concentrate on the learner as an individual and seek to explore the key questions:
- Where are you now?
- Where do you need to be?
- How are you going to get there?
Through the dynamic dialogue of assessment for learning (in part developed through student voice), and through the insights and understandings gained through learning to learn, students gradually gain the meta-cognitive control that helps them articulate their
needs and develop as responsible, confident, independent learners.
Through the questions above, teachers and students can develop a shared language of learning and begin to take steps towards co-construction.
ASSESMENT AS FORMING “CO-CONSTRUCTION”:
LEARNING AS A PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER AND STUDENT
The three gateways that are clustered to form deep learning interact in highly complex ways. Critically, all three gateways create conditions and opportunities for staff and students to engage in co-construction.
In assessment for learning, close partnerships between students and staff can lead to
the co-construction of assessment criteria and lesson planning. In learning to learn students are encouraged to reflect on their own learning; at its best this enables them to develop individual learning plans with staff with a high degree of confidence. Working on any one of these three gateways makes it easier to progress on one or both of the others.
Clearly the interactions between these gateways are fundamental to the development of deep learning. All three help to develop specific learning needs, and place engagement at the heart of the process.
Together they help to develop confidence, independence and responsibility along with meta-cognitive control. In turn these are indicators of the student for whom learning has been successfully personalized. (Emphasis the ISE’s) They contribute to the capacity for co-constructed approaches to teaching and learning. The three emphasize that
learning is not something that is done to you, it is an active process in which you participate with your teachers.
More crucially, when put together all three help to develop what we are calling ‘the conditions for learning’.
PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR USING THE PRINCIPALS OF DEEP LEARNING
IN THE CLASSROOM / WORKSHOPS
The following table (Table 1, Hougton, 2004) compiled from the work of Biggs (1999), Entwistle (1988) and Ramsden (1992) provides some very valuable characteristics of the approaches and illustrates the importance of how we manage the curriculum impacts on the learning process. For example, clearly stated academic aims, opportunities to exercise some choice and well aligned assessment strategies that help students to build confidence can be found among the factors identified as encouraging a deep approach.
Table 1 Compares the characteristics and factors that encourage Deep and Surface Approaches to learning. (Compiled from Biggs (1999), Entwistle (1988) and Ramsden (1992))
Examining new facts and ideas critically, and tying them into existing cognitive structures and making numerous links between ideas.
Accepting new facts and ideas uncritically and attempting to store them as isolated, unconnected, items.
Looking for meaning.
Relying on rote learning.
Encouraged by Students'
Having an intrinsic curiosity in the subject.
Studying a degree for the qualification and not being interested in the subject.
Encouraged by Teachers'
Showing personal interest in the subject.
Conveying disinterest or even a negative attitude to the material.
The last row of the table provides us with some simple guidelines as the "do's" and "don'ts" in teaching.
We need to think carefully about the assessment and assessment processes, as it is this part of the curriculum that affects the students' approaches to learning most. We need to construct assessment that gives students opportunity to receive feedback, but also must make the assessment relevant to the real world of engineering.
THE FEATURES OF DEEP AND SURFACE APPROACHES
CAN BE SUMMARISED THUS:
Focus is on “what is signified”
Focus is on the “signs” (or on the learning as a signifier of something else)
Relates previous knowledge to new knowledge
Focus on unrelated parts of the task
Relates knowledge from different courses
Information for assessment is simply memorised
Relates theoretical ideas to everyday experience
Facts and concepts are associated unreflectively
Relates and distinguishes evidence and argument
Principles are not distinguished from examples
Organises and structures content into coherent whole
Task is treated as an external imposition
Emphasis is internal, from within the student
Emphasis is external, from demands of assessment
(based on Ramsden, 1988)
The Surface learner is trying to “suss out” what the teacher wants and to provide it, and is likely to be motivated primarily by fear of failure. One interesting study has suggested that efforts by teachers to convey that what they want is Deep learning only succeeds in getting Surface learners to engage in ever more complex contextualising exercises, trying to use Surface strategies to reproduce the features of the Deep approach. (Ramsden, Beswick and Bowden, 1986)
Surface learning tends to be experienced as an uphill struggle, characterised by fighting against boredom and depressive feelings. Deep learning is experienced as exciting and a gratifying challenge (more often, at least!)
ASSESMENT METHODS THAT SUPPORT DEEP LEARNING
There is some evidence that assessment methods can “reach See, inter al. this excellent paper from the Assessment Standards Knowledge exchange (ASKe) at Oxford Brookes University.back” into courses in such a way as to make Surface approaches more likely: it has not so far been demonstrated that appropriate assessment methods can of themselves encourage Deep learning, although the "Assessment for Learning" movement is working along those lines.
The Deep and Surface distinction is a very popular one, much researched, using two main instruments; the Study Process Questionnaire (Biggs, 1987) and Entwistle's Approaches to Study Inventory. Although the original ideas were derived from the “phenomenographic” approach of open-ended measures factor-analyzed to yield the basic Deep and Surface dimensions, later work has concentrated on refining scales to produce the dimensions (thus explicating the “symptoms” of each approach), and thereby regarded the approaches themselves as given.
One characteristic of the Surface approach is its tendency to “miss the point” of the learning. My reading of the evidence is that this may be a generalization which is not completely supported by the evidence, particularly bearing in mind the non-subject-specific questionnaire instruments used which may not be able to get at this feature very easily.
What does not appear to have been researched is the problem of the structure of the knowledge being taught. While it is clear that either approach can be applied to practically anything, some subjects call forth a Surface approach more readily than others — law and medicine are perhaps examples. (That is why the adoption of problem-based learning in medical training was such an important innovation.) While there is a correlation between Deep approaches and better results in summative assessments, nothing seems to have been done on outcomes in professional practice beyond the institution.
Two other points:
- Many current university students have been "coached" by their teachers to get the grades they need for admission: they have been trained to be surface learners, and their experience is that it "works". Why should they take the risk of working in a different way?
- Surface learning seems to be more likely when learning is isolated from practice. Practice has its own problems, in terms of "survival" practice, but surface learning is perhaps a function of the isolation of academic life from the real world where knowledge and ignorance have real consequences, rather than merely affecting assessment grades. (See the discussion of "communities of practice")
Re: PUTTING DEEP LEARNING AND ASSESSEMENT CONCEPTS TOGETHER
Paper presented at the TLRP Conference, Leicester, November 2000
Promoting deep learning through teaching and assessment:
conceptual frameworks and educational contexts.
University of Edinburgh
Knowledge transformation depends, in part, on the nature of the concepts used. To have an impact on practice, in my view, the concepts have to be broad enough to map on to everyday experience and be couched in accessible language, preferably with metaphorical associations.
Research from the student’s perspective
Outcomes of learning
A deep strategic approach to studying is generally related to high levels of academic achievement, but only where the assessment procedures emphasise and reward personal understanding. Otherwise, surface strategic approaches may well prove more adaptive. Even where the assessment does stress understanding, the levels students reach will still, of course, vary. The idea of qualitatively different outcomes of learning
was another product of the work of Marton and his colleagues (Marton & Säljö, 1976, 1997), and was operationalised independently by Biggs and Collis (1983) through their SOLO taxonomy. In a series of interview studies in Edinburgh, we have been exploring the forms of understanding experienced by final year: five distinct categories were identified which varied in terms of their breadth, depth and structure (Entwistle, 1995, 1998a; Entwistle & Entwistle, 1997). Building on the earlier research, we were able to
suggest how to describe, in general terms, the qualitative differences in outcomes of learning found in the ways students tackle their written work. These are outlined in Table 1.
Levels of understanding as outcomes of learning
Mentioning Incoherent bits of information without any obvious structure
Describing Brief descriptions of topics derived mainly from material provided
Relating Outline, personal explanations lacking detail or supporting argument
Explaining Relevant evidence used to develop structured, independent arguments
Conceiving Individual conceptions of topics developed through reflection
These attempts at describing outcomes of learning have been generic and can only be used to guide the description of outcomes within a course or subject area.
Conceptions of teaching
Previously, we introduced the notion of a hierarchy of conceptions of learning: more recent research has suggested a similar hierarchy describing conceptions of teaching. In interviews, faculty members have been asked to describe what they mean by ‘learning’ and ‘teaching’, and to indicate their beliefs about teaching and assessment (Prosser, Trigwell & Taylor, 1994; Van Driel et al., 1997; Kember, 1998).
From such studies, three main categories typically emerge, ones which closely parallel in their underlying meaning those found by both Säljö and Perry.
Some conceive of teaching as covering subject matter:
Some colleagues talk about the importance of covering the syllabus and ensuring that students acquire the correct information and ideas: they have a conception which has been described as teacher-focused, and content-oriented.
Some conceive of teaching as focusing on student activities
Another group was described as focusing on student activity, with an emphasis on providing assignments designed to ensure active learning and helping students to develop effective study skills. Yet this group still saw learning only from their own perspective.
Some conceive of teaching as more student-focused
The final group, smaller than the other two, was labelled student-focused, and learning-oriented. Staff in this group were more concerned with helping students to develop personal understanding and more sophisticated conceptions, and designed their teaching and assessment accordingly.
Teachers with these contrasting conceptions of teaching, tend to hold corresponding views on assessment procedures and on the ability and motivation of their students (Van Driel et al., 1997).
Staff who are content oriented are likely to see assessment as designed to demonstrate detailed factual knowledge of the syllabus. They also tend to consider the outcomes of learning as being almost entirely the responsibility of the students themselves, depending on their ability and motivation. The student-focused group tend to use more varied methods of assessment and to be aware of their own responsibility for encouraging students to develop deep levels of understanding.
The conceptions of both learning and teaching held by teachers also affect their approaches to teaching (Trigwell & Prosser, 1999). The chain has been completed by showing that the approaches to teaching adopted by teachers also influences their students’ approaches to studying and through those, the learning outcomes.
Previously we traced a similar chain of connections from conceptions of learning, through approaches to studying, to levels of understanding. There are thus influences coming from the student’s own ways of thinking and studying, and from their experiences of teaching.
Influences on approaches to studying and outcomes of learning
Transforming research findings into improved practice
If we are to transform this conceptual framework into a form more relevant to practitioners, we need to make clear how different ways of teaching and assessment,
and other aspects of the teaching-learning environment, affect the quality and effectiveness of student learning.
We need to draw attention to the interaction between the characteristics of the students and those of the teacher. Student characteristics are divided into those which describe cognitive aspects and ways of thinking on the one hand, and on the other, elements of the learning process which are mainly affective or related to study practices on the right.
The influence of teaching needs to be considered not only from the position of how to impart information (such as by lecturing, which is where most research-and teacher control- exists), but also from the point of view of the environment over which individual lecturers have much less control, such as assessment procedures and the choices offered to students.
Research has shown that, while teaching-learning environments affect approaches to learning and studying, they do not do so in a uniform way. The effects are mediated by the ways in which the individual student perceives aspects of the provision
(Entwistle & Ramsden, 1983).
One problem with studying all of this is that no study can effectively bring out the nature of the relationships between the concepts shown. Research findings have indicated, for example, that while level, pace, structure and clarity all contribute to the effectiveness of lecturing, it is generally explanation, enthusiasm, and empathy which are most likely to evoke a deep approach. Similarly, it appears that assessment which encourages students to think for themselves — such as essay questions, applications to new contexts, and problem-based questions — shifts students in a class towards a deep approach.
In contrast, procedures perceived by students as requiring no more than the accurate reproduction of information lead to a predominance of surface approaches (Thomas & Bain, 1984; Scouller, 1998).
Another problem in considering this material is considering the influence of different ways of selecting and organizing content. To some extent at least, the teacher can decide the aims of a course, the assignments set, and aspects of the assessment procedure. As Project Zero at Harvard has demonstrated, careful design of the curriculum can have a powerful influence on what students come to learn. The research
group there has developed a Teaching for Understanding framework which encourages teachers to set overarching goals in terms of understanding, to select generative topics which encourage thinking, and to design assignments which require students to reach and demonstrate understanding (Wiske, 1998). These understanding performances not only demonstrate understanding, they are also intended to develop it by requiring higher level thinking.
Performances of understanding require students to show their understanding in an observable way. They make students’ thinking visible. It is not enough for students’ to reshape, expand, extrapolate from, and apply their knowledge in the privacy of their own thoughts... but still, when translating private thoughts into visible expression, may displays of understanding would be untried, possibly fragile, and virtually impossible to assess. (Blythe et al., 1998, p. 63)
Thus, in higher education, Biggs (1999) has built on this framework to argue for the importance of constructive alignment, in which the aims of a course are stated in terms which stress the importance of personal understanding, with the curriculum and teaching-learning environment then being aligned directly to support those aims.
Finally, recent research is suggesting that we need to take more account of the effects of past experience and knowledge on how the teacher selects and interprets content knowledge. For example, Marton and Booth (1997) see effective teaching as being dependent on the object of study created by the teacher, and note that teachers can present their classes with very different objects of study even from the same syllabus.
Effective teaching, in their view, depends on ‘meetings of awareness’ between the teacher and the class, with the teacher shaping the knowledge in ways designed to help students to understand it. That ability depends on an empathetic awareness of what students already know and how they learn. They argue that (pedagogy depends on) meetings of awareness, which we see as achieved through the experiences that teachers and learners undertake jointly… Teachers mould experiences for their students with the aim of bringing about learning, and the essential feature is that the teacher takes the part of the learner. The teacher focuses on the learner’s experience of the object of learning. Here we have (what we call) ‘thought contact’, (with) the teacher
moulding an object of study (for the students).
A similar line of argument has been developed by Entwistle and Smith (2000) in distinguishing between target understanding and personal understanding, and between historical and proximal influences on both teachers and pupils in affecting outcomes of learning. The content of an external syllabus is the result of a consultation process (and political will) which arrives at a certain content appropriate for a particular age
and ability group. That represents the formal target understanding. The syllabus, however, has then to be interpreted by the teacher, and that interpretation depends on the teacher’s prior knowledge and experience, not just of the subject matter, but also of pedagogy. Those are the historical influences. Proximal influences come into play as the teacher constructs the specific object of study for the class.
The pupils experience a presentation of the teacher’s understanding of the syllabus - the teacher’s target understanding, rather than the syllabus itself - but that is then interpreted in terms of their own personal history and their current knowledge and initial understanding. This personal understanding is not just formed from content knowledge; it also includes beliefs and feelings about the educational context based
on past experience. All of these components affect how the pupil reacts to the target set by the teacher.
Proximal influences are found within the classroom (emotional climate and social pressures) and from the tasks set. Together, these then influence the strategies the pupil adopts, and the levels of effort and engagement employed, and hence the level of understanding reached.
However, another layer of complexity emerges. When the teacher examines the
evidence of this personal understanding, it is judged in terms of the teacher’s own understanding. Thus, when a teacher refers to a pupil ‘having understood’, that is actually the extent of the match between the pupil’s personal understanding and the target understanding set by the teacher.
IN CONCLUSION: It is difficult enough to conceptualise all the influences on the processes of teaching and learning, let alone to present them in ways which suggest practical ways of improving the quality and effectiveness of learning outcomes. While the process of transforming research findings into workable and effective practice is both extremely difficult and enormously important, it is also extremely fluid. We must make progress towards definition, towards mutual understanding, and towards the right and wrong alignment of syllogistic thinking (Heinemann, 2009) - without progress towards this end, research will still have little direct impact on practice.
OF DEEP LEARNING
Measuring Student Learning Outcomes
Bill Scroggins -- July 22, 2003
What are measurable student learning outcomes?
Measuring student learning outcomes, or SLOs, means determining if intended learning has actually occurred.
(However), student learning includes the full breadth of education: acquisition of skills, mastery of concepts, and growth in life perspective. Can students titrate an acid? analyze market trends? express themselves creatively?
Thus, determining if the desired learning has occurred requires objectives that are clearly defined in measurable terms. Evaluating titration ability may be fairly straightforward, but what are the measurable indicators of creative expression? Challenging certainly, but those who teach in the creative arts make these determinations regularly.
Learning outcomes are direct measures of learning, distinct from indirect measures such as graduation rates, course completion rates or even course grades. Indirect indicators do have value to an institution, but that value is in evaluating productivity and the extent to which the college is accomplishing related portions of its mission.1 In contrast, SLOs focus specifically on the individual’s skills, knowledge, and values.
Further, the assessment process should be able to distinguish between surface learning and deep learning. We have all experienced the student who can regurgitate information on a quiz but then is not able to perform when that information must be applied. Being able to describe the factors to be evaluated in analyzing market trends does not show the same level of learning as actually making that analysis successfully using real world information.
To effectively evaluate learning, the tool used should be appropriate to the outcome being measured. Answering multiple-choice questions to determine critical thinking is not an authentic measure of the student’s actual ability to think critically.
SLOs are useful at all levels of the educational process: individual classroom lessons, courses, programs, and college degrees. Feedback right during class about the effectiveness of a new lesson plan can be powerful in helping an instructor produce the desired learning. Course outlines specify SLOs, but can we provide evidence of the extent to which students who pass a course have actually met these objectives? Employers expect our students to be ready to perform in the workplace, and universities expect our transfers to be ready to do upper division work. Moreover, for an associate degree we require a breadth of general education courses. What learning do we expect to take place in GE courses, and have we measured whether or not that learning has occurred?
Just gathering this information is not enough. The instructor must use classroom feedback to improve the lesson for the next time it is presented and, if the feedback shows that learning has not occurred satisfactorily, must try again until the objective is reached. If our programs do not produce students with the competencies that employers need, we must make adjustments. If we cannot be clear about the expected outcomes produced by general education, how can we expect the associate degree to be valued? Those of us who have devoted our lives to education know in our hearts the value of what we do. While it is daunting to be asked to justify the worth of the educational process, we should enter that domain with the assurance of a positive outcome, particularly when we, the educators, are given the opportunity to make the determination ourselves, rather than having externally imposed measurements shape our fate.
1 For more on direct and indirect measures of student learning read “Methods of Assessment of Student Learning” by Peggy Maki of the American Association of Higher Education. (See MJC SLO Resource Book.)
What is “assessment of student learning outcomes” and why should we do it?
The teaching and learning process has as one of its core elements the assessment of student learning. The traditional focus of assessment has been on particular assignments culminating in a course grade with a collection of courses leading to a degree, credential or certificate. The assessment movement recognizes that assessment starts with individual assignments—but broadens the term to encompass the measurement of learning at the course, program, and college levels. Rather than assuming that knowledge and skills automatically result from the accretion process springing from individual assignments, the assessment movement seeks more global and comprehensive measures of cumulative learning.2
How do we know when students finish a course that they have all the skills and abilities intended for that course? How do we know when a student completes a major that they have learned what is needed to succeed in that field? What abilities, talents, and attitudes do we expect students to have when they complete a general education pattern, and how do we know they have those traits?
Several sources have contributed to the growing assessment movement.
• Our colleges and universities are educating an increasingly higher percentage of our population. These students bring a more diverse set of experiences and learning styles to our classrooms than ever before. Narrowly focused teaching methods are not as effective as they once were; hence the focus on a broader understanding of learning and thus also of teaching and assessment.
• The public and its elected representatives as well as employers are increasingly asking for evidence that education is both effective in producing needed learning and cost effective.
• Students are increasingly viewing themselves as customers and demanding evidence of the value of the educational product they are seeking.
Within the higher education community, the assessment movement is seen as an educationally sound response to these concerns. Rather than having politicians setting curriculum policy or having funding based on measures not associated with learning, assessment is driven by educators attempting to strike an equilibrium between sound educational practice and evidence of productivity.
Aren’t Grades Enough?
Even if consistent evaluation of minimum course learning objectives was achieved, grades would still depend on factors in the hands of individual instructors (weight for assignments, importance of additional topics, etc.), and on student behavior (missed or late assignments, for example).
Academic Freedom and SLOs
Course objectives in course outlines of record have been required outcomes for all instructors for some time. By extension, SLOs should also be considered “minimum conditions” for a course. Academic freedom protects free expression in the classroom, allowing instructors to present material in the manner they see fit. The outcomes of the learning process, however, remain a responsibility of the institution as a whole.
2 If time permits, read the following book before coming to the Student Learning Outcomes Institute: “Effective Grading: A Tool For Learning and Assessment” by Barbara Walvoord and Virginia Johnson Anderson, Jossey-Bass (1998), ISBN 0787940305. (Chapters 1, 5, and 11 are particularly on point for our discussion.)
Biggs, J. (1999). Teaching for Quality Learning at University, SHRE and Open University Press.
Entwistle , N. (1988). Styles of Learning and Teaching, David Fulton.
Heinemann, Robin, Sandoval, Lorenzo, Lead Authors with Bird, j. Carrillop, D., Hansen, A., Thamahkera, G., Wahle, C. and Wauneke, T. (2002) , National Training CurriculumManual: Building Juvenile Justice Partnerships, United States Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) and International Association of Chiefs of Police, Grant No. 19990MU-MU-0021, Alexandria, VA.
Hockaday, C., Heinemann, R. Stubben, J., (April 2001) Reconnecting Youth in Iowa, Prevention for High Risk Youth, National Council of Family Relations Report Journal.
Houghton, W. (2004) Engineering Subject Centre Guide: Learning and Teaching Theory for Engineering Academics. Loughborough: HEA Engineering Subject Centre.
Laurillard, D. (1993). Rethinking University Teaching, a framework for the effective use of educational technology, Routledge.
Marton, F. and Booth, S. (1997). Learning and Awareness, Lawrence Erblaum Associates, chapter 2
Prosser, M. and Trigwell, K. (1999). Understanding Learning and Teaching, on Deep and Surface Learning, Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press, chapter 4.
Ramsden, P. (1992). Learning to Teach in Higher Education, Routledge.
References for Practices for Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes
“Palomar College Statement of Principles on Assessment” from Palomar College (CA)
“Closing the Loop—Seven Common (Mis)Perceptions About Outcomes Assessment”, Angelo , Tom
“Five Myths of ‘Assessment’”, Clement, David, Monterey Peninsula College
- Biggs, J. B. (1999). Teaching for Quality Learning at University. Buckingham: Open University Press.
- Biggs, J. B. & Collis, K. F. (1982).Evaluating the quality of learning: the SOLO taxonomy. New York: Academic
- Blythe, T. and associates (1998). The Teaching for Understanding Guide. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Bowden, J. & Marton, F. (1998). The University of Learning. London: Kogan Page.
- Entwistle, N. J. (1994). Generative concepts and pedagogical fertility: Communicating research findings on
- student learning. Presidential address to the European Association for Research on Learning and
- Instruction. EARLI News, June, 1994, 9-15.
- Entwistle, N. J. (1995). Frameworks for understanding as experienced in essay writing and in preparing for
- examinations. Educational Psychologist, 30, 47-54.
- Entwistle, N. J. (1998a). Approaches to learning and forms of understanding. In B. Dart and G. Boulton-
- Lewis (Eds.), Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (pp. 72-101). Melbourne: Australian Council for
- Educational Research.
- Entwistle, N. J. (1998b). Improving teaching through research on student learning. In J. J. F. Forest (Ed.),
- University Teaching: International Perspectives (pp. 73-112). New York: Garland.
- Entwistle N. J. (2000). Approaches to studying and levels of understanding: the influences of teaching and
- assessment. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research (Vol. XV) (pp. 156-
- 218). New York: Agathon Press.
- Entwistle, N. J., & Entwistle, A. C. (1997). Revision and the experience of understanding. In F. Marton, D. J.,
- Hounsell, & N. J. Entwistle (Eds.), The Experience of Learning (2nd ed.) (pp. 145-158). Edinburgh: Scottish
- Academic Press.
- Entwistle, N. J., McCune, V. & Walker, P. (2000). Conceptions, styles and approaches within higher education:
- analytic abstractions and everyday experience. In R. J. Sternberg & L-F. Zhang (Eds.), Perspectives on
- Cognitive, Learning, and Thinking Styles. Mahwah, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum (in press).
- Entwistle, N.J., & Ramsden, P. (1983). Understanding Student Learning. London: Croom Helm.
- Entwistle, N. J. & Smith, C. A. (2000). Target understanding and personal understanding: a question of match (under review).
- Entwistle, N. J. & Tait, H. (1996). Identifying students at risk through ineffective study strategies. Higher Education, 31, 97-116.
THE IOWA SHAKESPEARE EXPERIENCE
APPLYING CONCEPTS OF DEEP LEARNING
TO LEARNING INVOLVING THE THEATRE ARTS
OR THE WORKS OF W. SHAKESPEARE
(Red highlights = explicit areas The Iowa Shakespeare Experience can effect in terms of generating outcomes)
All of the discussion above points to the difficulties and challenges inherent in making judgments about which teaching strategies are necessarily most effective towards which learning outcomes, and in making judgments about learning process and learning assessment.
Yet in order to teach, a throughline must be found. The Iowa Shakesepare Experience feels that Palomar College has an interesting approach to the problem of measuring learning across disciplines, and we embrace that approach in structuring our curriculum.
In our approach, as an organization which provides community-driven educational enrichment rather than curriculum teaching of the initial order (such as that provided in schools granting diploma), the ISE particularly recognizes the value of causing increased and more appreciative student interactions in and across the community:
The ISE also recognizes that the arts, and particularly the theatrical arts, are related strongly to the area of communication.
Thus, when seeking to understand the kind of learning outcomes we can reasonably expect to effect with our programming, we begin by examining generally accepted principles of what the general field of communication means in the lives of teachers and students, refining those principles into general outcomes hoped for from the study of the arts, and finally, take those principles more deeply into an examination of the two kinds of art which Shakespeare represents: the art of literature and various elements of the theatrical arts.
And, because all of these fields are related, we must also examine outcomes which accrue from the nature of interdisciplinary study itself.
In other words, borrowing expressing from Fink, 2003 (cited supra), “briefly, as students graduate from ISE programs, we expect them to (become enriched) in the basic knowledge of communication and its subfields, to be better skilled at learn how to use this knowledge, explore its personal and social meanings, to have had experience in how learning how this knowledge connects with some other ideas and experiences they have acquired, and to have been supported in learning how to learn better as a selfdirected, self-motivated, life-long learners.
INTERDISCIPLINARY LEARNING OUTCOMES
See: Innovative Higher Education, Vol. 27, No. 2, Winter 2002 ( C° 2002)
Interdisciplinary Learning: Process and Outcomes
Lana Ivanitskaya, Deborah Clark, George Montgomery,
and Ronald Primeau
The Iowa Shakespeare Experience recognizes that the largest lens through which our educational work in the community can be viewed is likely the lens of interdisciplinary thinking. Working as we do in at least 4 fields of study concurrently (Communication, The Arts, Literature and Theatre), our work is interdisciplinary itself, and that much more so our work in the community with our many community partners, and with learners of all ages and from all walks of life. Therefore, we being our presentation of our learning objectives with a broad discussion of those objectives which have been identified as applying in general to interdisciplinary programs.
Regarding the college and university trend to allow students to study programs of interdisciplinary nature, Clark, Ivanitskaya, Clark, Primeau and Montgomery,(2002) note that a growing number of cognitive theorists agree that “the relation between knowledge acquisition and performance in many domains requires not just a set of declarative facts, but a framework or a set of connections that leads to an understanding of when and how a set of facts applies in a given situation” (Dorsey, et al., 1999, p. 32).
Convergence of disciplines on one relevant theme (which in the case of the Iowa Shakespeare Experience, is often the theme or themes suggested by our Festival’s current Mainstage play) promotes intellectual maturation through the analysis, comparison, and contrast of perspectives contributed by each discipline. Therefore, we present below the listing of the different disciplines which offer learning objectives which the Iowa Shakespeare Experience can effect.
Clark, Ivanitskaya, Clark, Primeau and Montgomery,(2002) go on to note that “Interdisciplinary competence is highly dependent on building connections
between theories, approaches, methods of inquiry, concepts, and paradigms, i.e., interpretive tools through which students derive a frame of reference for exploration of a programmatic theme. For example, the interactions between the individual and societal norms can be explored in historical and political dimensions; analyzed philosophically;
and expressed in literature, film, or visual art. Mastery of interpretive tools enables learners to compare the aggregate of all perspectives derived from contributing disciplines.
As learners attain mastery in interdisciplinary studies, they use interpretive
tools to combine and integrate information into a complex
interdisciplinary knowledge structure focused on the program’s theme.” The Iowa Shakespeare Experience concurs. We have outlined in red ink, below, all the many learning objectives which we feel our work can most influence or effect, and in bold red where in certain of our program, when dose is appropriate, we believe we can cause measurable change.
Predicted Outcomes of Interdisciplinary Programs Ackerman (1989), Ackerman & Perkins (1989), Field, Lee, & Field (1994)
(Red ink denotes outcomes the ISE seeks to support with its programming)
- Ability to generate analogies and metaphors
- Understanding of the strengths and limitations of disciplines
- Ability to assess value to knowledge gained
- Enhanced thinking and learning skills
- Improved higher-order cognitive skills
- Improved content retention
Capacity for proactive and autonomous thinking
- Ability to devise connections between seemingly dissimilar contexts
- Ability to tolerate ambiguity or paradox
- Sensitivity to the ethical dimensions of issues
Enlarged perspectives and horizons
- Ability to synthesize or integrate
- Enhanced creativity, original insights or
- unconventional thinking
- Enhanced critical thinking
- Capacity to perceive a balance between
- subjective and objective thinking
- Humility, sensitivity to bias, and empowerment
- Ability to demythologize experts
Causes in critical theory, for instance, create a metacritical perspective within and across fields of study, such that the consideration of how a musician might interpret a painting or how a particular author reveals religious meanings in literature leads to a more critical awareness of fundamental questions about truth and values. The interdisciplinary knowledge structure is honed through a gradual advancement in higher-order cognition—specifically, metacognitive skills, critical thinking, and personal epistemology.
Interdisciplinary studies facilitate higher-order cognitive processing by motivating students to engage in deep learning. When students take a deep approach to learning, they seek meaning, reflect on what has been learned, and internalize knowledge by creating personal understanding (Entwistle & Ramsden, 1983). Deep learning is often contrasted with surface learning (e.g., memorization of facts) and characterized by important and long-standing changes in intellectual development. As an example, students in the M.A. in Humanities program often report changes in their teaching and reading, as well as lifechanging alterations in the way they perceive their lives and work. One student suggested her humanities coursework provided the “thread to stitch together the various tapestries of [her own] interests and aspirations.”
More generally, deep learning is manifested as a reduced reliance on external guidance, less absolute thinking, and increased confidence in one’s beliefs and actions (Zhang & Richarde, 1999). That increased confidence, when also supported by “muscle memory” confidence regarding the speaking and movement skills one learns on the stage, sets
The authors go on to note that critical thinking in all of its many facets- is another outcome of interdisciplinary study. The ISE will present below those elements of our work in the communication field which support increased student ability to engage in critical thinking and in all related elements of a communicative life – communicative both internally as well as externally.
(As expressed by the faculty of Pallomar College)
The Communication Area seeks to engage faculty and students in the integrated acts of
active and transformative learning. This means that we want to see in our graduating
students what L. D. Fink1 calls “significant and lasting” transformation in terms of
foundational knowledge, application learning, integration of ideas, understanding the
human dimension of learning, caring interests or values, and/or learning how to learn. In
other words, by the end of our program, we want to see our students achieve the
1.1.1 Foundational knowledge—the basic theoretical understanding of the discipline and its subfields, which includes
a. Critical understanding of the key theories, methodologies, and concepts in Communication and its subfields,
b. Ability to explain the verbal and nonverbal, historical and cultural aspects and issues of communication in various contexts, and
c. Understanding of the key patterns of communication in dyadic group, organizational, c public, and cultural contexts.
As expressed in:
Fink, L. D. (2003). Creating Significant Learning Experiences: An integrated
approach to designing college courses. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
1.1.2 Application learning—important skills, thinking or managing abilities, which include
a. Demonstrated ability to ‘read’ the social texts and write fieldwork-based or textual analysis of communication issues(analytical skills),
b. Demonstrated ability to speak clearly in public and academic forums (performance skills),
c. Demonstrated ability to critically analyzing the content ofcommunication (critical thinking) as part of quantitative and qualitative research, and
d. Demonstrated ability to devise practical or innovative solutions social conflict as a team player (practical/creative thinking).
1.1.3 Integration learning—connecting ideas within various subfields of the Communication Studies and beyond the discipline, which includes
a. Demonstrated ability to analyze the connections between the interdisciplinary theoretical learning and human experiences in everyday life, in written and oral forms, and
b. Demonstrated ability to identify communication challenges for
living in a globalized world
1.1.4 Understanding the human dimension of learning—learning aboutself and others, which includes
a. Demonstrated awareness of the ways people in different cultures and socio-organizational contexts make sense of life, communicate and conduct business (self and others), and
b. Demonstrated ability to educate others about the complexity of
communication in personal and public life
1.1.5 Caring—adopting new feelings, interests, ideas or values, which
a. Demonstrated appreciation of human diversity in the world,
b. Cultivated interest in knowing about other cultures, and
c. Refined interest in the fight for social justice
1.1.6 Learning how to learn, which includes
a. Demonstrated ability to be a better student,
b. Demonstrated ability to ‘read’ social interactions and write about it,
c. Development of a future learning plan for self-directed lifelong
These learning outcomes stem from and support the mission, goals and
objectives of the Area, as stated above (1.2 & 1.3).
Learning Outcomes Common to all Arts Programs:
1. Students in all programs demonstrate mastery of practical and conceptual knowledge
of the visual arts (appropriate to the degree program).
2. Students in all programs demonstrate abilities to: carry out scholarly and disciplined
inquiries in the visual arts; and participate actively in discourse analyzing critical issues
in the field.
3. Students in all programs demonstrate an ability to engage with Los Angeles as a major cultural and international center of visual arts and related industries.
4. Students are qualified for admission into programs of advanced study and/or entrance
into professional careers.
5. Students in all programs demonstrate understanding of diverse cultural traditions and
aesthetic values embodied in the visual arts, past and present.
6. Students in all programs demonstrate abilities to develop collegial relationships and
work collaboratively with faculty and students.
7. Students in all programs demonstrate understanding of their roles and responsibilities
to participate actively and ethically in multicultural societies.
8. Students in all programs demonstrate abilities to: negotiate complex visual landscapes; derive meaning from the visual arts; and pursue creative endeavors throughout their lives.
9. Students demonstrate the ability to work collaboratively with colleagues and
contribute to the vitality of the arts communities.
Learning Outcomes of the Master of Arts Program:
Graduates demonstrate the ability to produce and present an original body of work
through disciplined inquiry and discourse analyzing issues in a particular area of the
Learning outcomes of the Master of Fine Arts Program
- Graduates demonstrate the ability to produce and present a significant body of work
through disciplined inquiry and rigorous discourse analysis that makes a contribution to
the field (studio arts or design).
Department of Communication Studies
6. Students will develop a greater appreciation for the necessity of collaboration, as well
as the collaborative ethics of professional media production (Attitudes).
- Students will have a greater appreciation for the social responsibilities of
contemporary media, including responsibilities engaging notions of identity, ethics,
politics and culture (Attitudes).
Department of English
Develop an understanding and appreciation of the power and beauty of written
expression through the study of representative literary texts from diverse periods,
genres, and cultures
Practice textual analysis with confidence and skill
Develop a multicultural understanding of their own and other cultures, past and
present, through the historically contextualized study of language and literature
Be aware of the evolving roles of literature, aesthetics, and critical theory
Be able to develop and support original perspectives with precision, express
themselves effectively and with clarity, and engage in constructive dialog with an
awareness of multiple perspectives
Be able to conduct research in the field
Develop solid reading, writing, and critical thinking skills
Department of Liberal Studies
Learning Outcomes: These learning outcomes are demonstrated skills, knowledge, and
perceptible understandings of the goals and objectives of the major in general and the
specific courses that structure the curriculum of the Department of Liberal Studies.
- Students will demonstrate knowledge of the basic focus, goals, and approaches of the
Physical Sciences, Social Sciences, and the Humanities, including Cultural Studies and
2. Students will demonstrate the ability to do detailed descriptions of cultural sites,
cultural performances, practices, and arts in the multi-cultural and multi/inter-ethnic
landscape of Los Angeles through descriptive qualitative methods.
3. Students will demonstrate their ability to read, critically analyze, and apply advanced
theories of culture to disciplinary knowledge production in the natural sciences, the social
sciences, and the humanities.
4. Students will demonstrate mastery of the modes of critical analysis proper to the
humanities and fine arts as applied to a variety of different texts such as films, television
shows, historical essays, novels, news reports, and archival materials.
5. Students will demonstrate understanding of difficult critical arguments as they are
constructed through diverse disciplinary formations.
- Students will construct and demonstrate the nature of critical arguments, how they are
structured and what position they take in relation to the subject matter.
Department of Music
The Department of Music is committed to the following outcomes:
Students will demonstrate:
The ability to perform on their instrument or voice with technical proficiency and
sufficient artistry to perform a variety of appropriate repertoire.
Rudimentary knowledge of the MIDI protocol and the ability to use basic
computer technology for music notation, music example realization (sequencing),
recording, and research.
The ability to comprehend all aspects of music theory, including analysis, partwriting,
ear-training, and sight-singing.
The ability to comprehend all aspects of music history including all historical
periods, genres, and styles.
Knowledge of music literature from a variety of times and places representative of
the western European tradition.
Knowledge of the literature and stylistic characteristics of various world musics
(i.e., music from diverse cultures and styles).
Department of Theatre Arts and Dance
Learning outcomes of each program
BA Theatre option: At the completion of the BA Theatre option students will be able to:
1 .Improve oral, written, and critical thinking skills.
2. Improve computer literacy through the required design classes.
3. Improve library skills by learning how to conduct research in theatre and
4. Learn how to write about performances
5. Learn how to put performance in a cultural, historical, and theoretical context
6. Learn the history of theatre and performance in major western and nonwestern
Areas of interest within this option
- Learn to be aware of and to perform and/or direct in at least six of the following
major genres of western performances: Greek, Roman, Medieval, Renaissance
(Italian, Elizabethan, Jacobean), Spanish Golden Age, German Enlightenment,
Neo-Classical, Restoration, Romantic, Melodramatic, Modern, Naturalism,
Realism, Constructivism, Surrealism, Expressionism, Dadaism, Avant-
Garde, Poetic Realism, Happenings, Experimental, Contemporary,
Postmodern, and Current Trends in Performance Art.
2. Learn to be aware and to perform and/or direct in at least three of the following
cultural artistic traditions: African, Japanese Kabuki/Noh/Bunraku/Butoh,
Korean Folk Art, Chinese Opera (Xiqu), Shadow Puppetry, Latin American
Theatre, and other designated cultural forms of theatrical expression.
3. Learn to be aware and to perform and/or direct in at least three of the following
acting theoretical traditions: Aristotelian/ Platonic Dialectical (Greek),
Classical (text based), Denis Diderot, Stanislavky (Realism), Meyerhold
(Bio-Mechanics), Michael Chekov (Poetic Realism), Antonin Artaud (Theatre
of Cruelty), Bertolt Brecht (Didactic), Group Theatre/ Strasberg (Method)
Federal Theatre Project/Living Newspaper (Political), Peter Brook (Cultural
Innovation), Jerzy Growtowski (Poor Theatre), Eugenio Barba
(Reconstruction), Augusto Boal (Theatre of the Oppressed), Anne Bogart
(Viewpoints), Richard Foreman (Ontological-Hysteric Theatre), Robert Wilson
(Minimalist), Julie Tabor (Interculturalist), Lee Breuer (Eclectic Synthesis),
Peter Sellers (auteur), and Liviu Ciulei (Visual Structuralist).
4. Learn to select, analyze, incrementally organize, and prepare to rehearse a
scene or play.
5. Learn to block a script on paper and communicate effectively the directorial
design to actors.
- Learn (as an actor) how to audition competently within the professional market
place: theatre, TV, film or dance.
- Learning outcomes in Scenic, Costume, and Lighting design courses have been
developed to allow the student to acquire skills related to design and technical
2. Learn the basic tools and techniques of scenery construction. Learn basic
3. Learn costume paint and dye techniques as well as wardrobe plotting.
4. Learn the basic principles of costume design and construction as well as
understanding the historical nature of costume from ancient to modern times.
5. Learn costume rendering layout and construction techniques.
6. Learn scenery design including working drawings model making and
- Learn the theory and practice of lighting design, including basic electricity,
optics, color, light plots, the use of lighting equipment and its control systems.
1. Learn the history of arts management.
2. Learn the various functions of management in the arts.
3. Learn to be familiar with and how to create, utilize, or access incorporation of
non-profit and profit organizations.
1. Learn to create an understanding and appreciation for the practical function of
theatre stage managers.
2. Develop a working knowledge of the research and tools used by professional
3. Learn about unions, associations, contracts, and rules that govern the
4. Learn how to use the technology available to the professional stage manager.
BA Dance Option
1. Improve oral, written, and critical thinking skills
2. Learn how to conduct research in dance and performance
3. Learn how to write about performances
4. Learn how to put performance in a cultural, historical, or theoretical context
Dance majors are expected to demonstrate proficiency in dance at an advanced
level in the following domains:
1. Learn to process, analyze and respond to sensory information through the
language and skills unique to dance.
2. Demonstrate increased movement skills, concentration and physical control in
performing movement for artistic expression.
3. Learn to discriminate and use a wide range in the used of time, space, and
4. Learn to memorize and reproduce long movement sequences.
- Learn to use choreographic principles and processes to express perceptions,
feelings, images, and thoughts through dance, working alone, with a partner, or in
2. Learn to manipulate the elements of dance, shape, space, time and energy, to
create short studies that demonstrate development as well as a beginning, middle
3. Learn to create and perform dance works of art showing proficiency in
investigating complex thematic materials, universal themes, and incorporate
simple dance performances, e.g.: music, lighting, scenic design, costuming and
analyzing how these will affect the performance of the work.
1. Gain understanding of historical and cultural dimensions of the dance arts.
2. Students will be able to analyze, discuss and write about the role and
development of dance in past and present cultures throughout the world noting
human diversity as it relates to dance and dancers.
3. Understand, articulate and write about artist/work of art/different dance forms
and the effects of society on artwork and of artwork on society.
Verbal and Written Aesthetic Evaluation
1.Learn to respond to, analyze, articulate and make judgments about artwork.
2. Students will critically assess the meaning of works of dance and performance
of dancers based on the cultural and historical contexts of the dance and their
1.Students will have a heightened sense of community, cultural sensitivity and
respect through community-based performances and teaching dance.
2. Students will have a heightened sense of commitment towards civic
duty/community involvement as future teachers, performers, or workers in
3. Students will have a heightened sense of the impact of their performing on
community audience members.
It is the firm belief of the Department of Theatre Arts and Dance, that students in
the BA degree program, with theatre emphasis, will learn to move on stage via
their dance activity and dance emphasis students will learn to act their theatre
activity, thus becoming more well-rounded and better prepared actors and
Theatre Arts and Dance Minor
The Theatre Arts and Dance Minor is designed to develop student skills in using
theatre and/or dance as it relates to their performing careers, technical theatre,
history/theory, teaching or related fields.
1. Improve oral, written, and critical thinking skills.
2. Develop a vocabulary for describing diverse forms of theatre and dance
3. Learn how to write about performance.
4. Learn the relationship between theatre & performance and society and how to
put performance in a cultural, historical, or theoretical context.
- Develop advanced skills one or more areas or theatre and/or dance: dance
techniques, acting, playwriting, choreography, directing, producing, stage
management, arts management, dance or theatre history, theory, or education.
Master of Arts in Theatre
1. Improve oral, written, and critical thinking skills.
2. Learn how to conduct advanced research in theatre and performance ranging
from fieldwork to databases and web sites.
3. Learn the criteria and process of submitting articles for publication.
4. Learn the contemporary theorists, critics, and practitioners in theatre and
5. Develop a vocabulary for describing diverse forms of theatre and performance.
6. Gain an understanding of the relationship between contemporary theatre and
performance to that of other eras and cultures.
7. Learn how to contextualize theatre and performances.
8. Demonstrate the relationship of theory to practice in performance criticism.
9. Learn the relationship between theatre & performance and society.
10. Gain a clear knowledge of Asian performance.
11. Gain pedagogical experience
ASSESMENT of LEARNING
Learning Assessment is inseparably related to curriculum and while related to program evaluation, for the most part, radically different from it.
For program evaluation, see page X
ARTS and PERFORMANCE
(From a Deep Learning perspective)
Firmly grounded in the awareness, shown above, that the Iowa Shakespeare Experience’s educational programming has the power to effect a number of outcomes all across the interdisciplinary fields of communication and the arts, the ISE is also mindful that one of the most fundamental learning outcomes we sometimes effect is in the area of stage performance- simply due to the fact that our lessons are interactive and involve numerous opportunities for students to personally engage in an acting performance.
The ISE is also aware that as a non-profit theatre agency, we may work WITH academic institutions (who we work with to integrate our learning into state or institution defined academic outcomes)- but that in community workshops, academic performance is often not as high on our list of outcome goals as are more “deep learning” goals involving enhancing a student’s ability to enjoy theatre and use elements of theatre or Shakespearean story in their personal lives.
However, although enhancement of performance is NOT the most fundamental or the most important of the learning outcomes we seek to create, this presentation of our educational work would be incomplete if we did not also briefly address learning outcomes and assessment issues related to enhanced stage performance capacities of our students – which especially relates or is relevant to many student’s “real world” interests in the area of public speaking in work, family or community settings.
For assessment related to stage performance, especially considering the fact that the ISE is not a degree-granting institution, but rather a self-development institution, we elect to focus performance-related assessment on self-assessed markers for growth, as articulated in the work of Mentkowski (Learning that Lasts). See references, and a brief description, below.
SELF ASSESSMENT AND PERFORMANCE:
DEEP LEARNING THAT LASTS
Mentkowski, M. (2003, November). Learning that lasts: Educating for the new basics. Plenary address at the annual conference of The Collaboration for the Advancement of Teaching & Learning in Higher Education: The New Basics, Bloomington, MN.
Menowski observes that “One of the challenges for some students in the performing arts is to articulate their observations and interpretations in written or spoken form. Some find this difficult because they are more accustomed to the nonverbal languages of their respective art forms. In their performances they express meaning through a variety of forms…Self assessment…requires that students…‘reflect out loud,’ whether orally or in writing, so that they become more conscious of the various components of their performance.”
See also: Chenevert, Deicher, Riordan, & Runkel, 2000, (p. 130)
Chenevert, J., Deicher, M. C., Riordan, T. M., & Runkel, R. (2000). Self assessment inthe performing arts. Alverno College
One of the most important realities of self-assessment is that self-assessment is developmental in nature. The ability to self-assess is a skill unto itself, and the ISE specializes in working with students wherever they are on the continuum, supporting students new to the work to gain mastery over fear and the confidence to grow, while gently challenging students in the more advanced stages of self-assessment ability to ensure that growth, in fact, does occur.
Self Assessment is developmental: