The Creative Economy in Iowa 

 

Research and Report Prepared for the 

Iowa Department of Cultural Affairs 

 

 

By 

 

 

Dave Swenson 

and 

Liesl Eathington 

 

 

Department of Economics 

Iowa State University 

 

 

February, 2003 

 

 

 

The Creative Economy in Iowa: An Overview 

 

This study is an assessment of Iowaís creative economy. It represents a broad inventory of 

the creative composition of the Iowa economy with an eye towards defining its size and 

scope, measuring how it compares with the U.S., and discerning the value of the creative 

economy to the larger Iowa economy. 

 

The creative economy has two important dimensions. The first is Iowaís creative workforce. 

The second is Iowaís creative industrial composition. The creative workforce is further 

segmented into two groups. The first, borrowing from Floridaís work (2002), is the super 

creative core, which is composed of computer and mathematical professionals; architects 

and engineers; life, physical, and social scientists; education, training, and library 

professionals; and arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations. The second 

subgroup is composed of the occupations termed creative professionals. Creative 

professionals include managers and administrators, business and financial professionals, 

legal professionals and health care practitioners, high-end sales professionals, and 

community and social service workers. 

 

Creative industries are those that employ large fractions of the creative workforce, invest 

heavily in research and development, or create and distribute technologically sophisticated 

or artistic goods and services. These industries include specific kinds of manufacturing; 

broadcasting and communications industries; professional services; scientific and technical 

services and activities; membership organizations for business, labor, and other groups; all 

education providers; applied, performing, visual, and performing arts; commercial sports; 

heritage institutions; and independent artists, performers, and writers. 

 

Iowaís creative economy has both strengths and weaknesses, especially when compared with 

the U.S. creative economy. 

.. By occupational grouping, Iowaís super-creative core of occupations makes up 10.8 

percent of the workforce compared to 12 percent for the U.S. 

 

Iowa has proportionately more creative workers in education, training, and 

library arts and sciences, but proportionately less in computer and 

mathematical specialists, architecture and engineering. 

Iowa is proportionately close to the U.S. in life, physical, and social 

scientists and in its arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers. 

.. Iowaís creative professional composition (16.2 percent) is also slightly smaller than 

the U.S (17.3 percent), which is more noticeable in its share of business and 

financial operations professionals and in its high end sales and related professionals. 

 

.. When combined, the Iowa creative occupational composition is 27 percent of the 

nonfarm workforce compared to a U.S. average of 29.2 percent. 

 

During the 1990s, Iowa and the U.S. posted strong gains in creative employment growth. 

.. Iowaís super creative core occupations grew by 33 percent compared to just under 

32 percent for the U.S. 

 

Iowa grew faster than the U.S. in mathematics and computer careers; life, 

physical, and social scientists; and artists. 

Iowa grew more slowly that the U.S. in education, training, and library 

professionals. 

 

Iowa and the U.S. posted low or negative growth in the number of engineers 

and architects. 

.. Iowaís creative professional occupations grew by almost 45 percent compared to 

just under 25 percent for the U.S. 

 

Most of these gains were made in managerial and financial occupations, 

which grew by more than twice the rate of the U.S. 

o Legal and health related jobs grew more slowly than the U.S. 

.. In all, Iowaís creative occupations grew by 40 percent between 1990 and 2000 

compared to 27.3 percent for the U.S. 

.. According to 2000 census respondents, the rate of increase in Iowans working in 

creative occupations was 3.5 times greater than all other occupations considering all 

change in occupations since 1990. 

 

There are distinct gender differences in the composition of Iowaís creative workforce. 

.. Women were about 54 percent of the super creative core group in 2000. 

 

Men were disproportionately dominant in math and computer fields, 

engineers and architects, and in life, physical, and the social scientists. 

Women were much more prominent in education, accounting for 72 percent 

of the occupations. Prominence in this category weights the total for the 

super-creative core group slightly in favor of women. 

There are more male creative professionals than female. 

 

In managerial and financial and in legal professions, there are significantly 

more men. 

Women, however, make up 78.5 percent of occupations in the health care 

group. 

.. When we look at growth over the last decade, we find that women have made 

proportionately strong gains in the super-creative core professions by gaining nearly 

2 of every three jobs. 

 

In math and computer fields, two new jobs went to men for every one that a 

women got. 

But in the education, training, and library professions, women accounted for 

94.2 percent of the new jobs, and in the arts, they captured 62 percent. 

.. Men received the lionís share of new creative professional jobs. 

Over 70 percent of new managerial and financial jobs went to men. 

Women posted very strong gains in legal (94 percent) and health care jobs 

(84 percent), but these gains were not enough to offset the numerical gains 

men made in managerial and finance careers. 

.. Despite gains in many categories, 53 percent of all creative jobs went to men and 47 

percent to women. 

 

On an annualized basis, Iowaís creative professionals earn less than their national 

counterparts. 

 

The average for all super creative core workers is 82.7 percent of the U.S. average. 

 

The highest percentage, 88.3 percent, was found for mathematical and 

computer workers. 

The lowest percentage, 71.7 percent, was found for Iowaís arts, design, 

entertainment, sports, and media professionals. 

.. The average for all creative professionals was 83.7 percent of the U.S. amount. 

 

ii 

 

 

Community and social service professionals had the highest value at 86.3 

percent. 

High end sales and related occupations fared more poorly at 80.3 percent. 

When we switch our focus to Iowaís creative industries, some interesting comparisons with 

the U.S. emerge 

.. Iowaís creative industries make up 22.5 percent of all nonfarm jobs compared to 

 

25.6 percent for the U.S. 

Iowa is proportionately very under-represented in creative manufacturing, 

broadcast and media firms, scientific and technical firms, applied and 

performing arts, and in jobs in heritage establishments. 

Iowa is proportionately competitive with the U.S. in post-secondary 

education, all other education, in the literary and visual arts, and in 

commercial sports. 

.. During the decade of the 1990s, jobs in Iowaís creative industries grew by 14 

percent, ten percentage points less than the U.S. rate. 

 

The state had relatively high growth rates in professional services firms (43 

percent), performing arts (49 percent), visual arts (35 percent), commercial 

sports (39 percent). 

Rates of growth were low or negative in creative manufacturing, broadcast 

and media firms, literary arts, and membership organizations. 

.. Average earnings per job in Iowaís creative industries were 73.4 percent of the U.S. 

average 

 

Iowaís post-secondary education jobs paid slightly above the U.S. average. 

All other industry groupings were substantially less. 

Among the lowest paying industries were commercial sports (25 percent), 

performing arts (29.5 percent), broad cast and media jobs (53 percent), 

scientific and technical jobs (63 percent), and applied arts (64 percent). 

The study also finds rural and urban differences in the accumulation of creative jobs in Iowa. 

.. Nonmetropolitan areas were able to capture nearly 33 percent of all jobs in creative 

industries between 1990 and 2000. 

 

They, however, post substantially smaller shares of the gains in scientific 

and technical jobs (17.5 percent) and arts and entertainment jobs (6.8 

percent). 

The study concludes that there are concentrations of creative job change in 

the state that align with the stateís more populated regions. 

Economic impact estimates were estimated for Iowaís creative workers and Iowaís creative 

firms. 

 

.. In all, Iowaís creative workforce converts $8.57 billion of its take home 

compensation into spending in the Iowa economy, which in and of itself supports 

45,812 jobs. 

 

.. After all of this household spending multiplies its way through the Iowa economy, 

Iowaís creative workforce sustains $13.1 billion state sales, creates $8.002 billion in 

value added, and pays $4.7 billion in labor income to 195,464 job holders. 

 

iii 

 

 

 .. Iowaís creative industries directly generate $18.1 billion in industrial output, create 

 

$12.1 billion in value added, and require 305,972 job holders receiving $10.95 

 

billion in labor income. 

 

.. When compared to all other jobs in the economy, jobs in creative industries pay 60 

 

percent higher earnings per worker. 

 

It is inappropriate to add creative industry economic impact values together as many 

 

firms purchase from each other, however, the major industries that stand out are 

 

Search and navigation equipment manufacturing creating $2.9 billion in 

total industrial output, 22,724 jobs, and $868 million in labor income 

Total economic effects of newspaper publishing was $828.8 million in 

output, 10,833 jobs, and $292 million in labor income. 

Iowaís hospitals accounted for $6.22 billion in total industrial output, 

required 96,188 jobs, and paid $2.8 billion in wages. 

Doctors and dentists created $5.1 billion in total, multiplied through output, 

61,059 jobs, and $2.3 billion in labor income. 

All other education (primary and secondary) linked to $5.26 billion in total 

statewide industrial output, 107,156 jobs, and $3.8 billion in labor income. 

Post-secondary education created $3.3 billion in total output, 60,192 jobs, 

and $2.94 billion in labor income. 

How does this research inform policy makers? There are serious efforts currently underway 

in Iowa to promote the retention of specific kinds of creative workers, to entice professionals 

to consider the state, and to attract the kinds of firms that provide employment opportunities 

for a talented and industrious workforce that will help Iowa rise above current rates of 

economic change. Strong arguments have been made that Iowaís creative occupational 

structure needs more attention from state leaders than it perhaps has received in the past. 

 

An honest summary of this research would conclude that Iowa has a ways to go if it is to 

achieve creative economy competitiveness with much of the rest of the nation. This research 

represents the statistical baseline from which planners and policy makers can proceed in 

promoting the state and its human resources. Politically and professional there is now an 

obvious open-mindedness regarding what is needed to stimulate economic and social 

growth. It is equally obvious that the state has tremendous assets to use in cultivating its 

creative economy. It has nationally ranked universities that are powerful magnets for talent. 

It has major cities that are highly livable places with exciting and diverse economies, social 

structures, and entertainment options. It has rural spaces that are diverse and interesting, 

offering hosts of recreation and entertainment opportunities. 

 

Comparatively few places in Iowa will likely realize the majority of economic and social 

growth over the next decade. Still, the overall livability in those places and the rest of the 

state depends on far more than merely the number of jobs they create. There is great 

opportunity for growth and enhancement in non-traditional areas of Iowaís economy ñ its 

artistic, cultural, and recreational institutions. These opportunities can only be enhanced 

when state and community leaders recognize that the sum of a community is greater than the 

sum of its jobs. 

 

Dave Swenson and Liesl Eathington 

Iowa State University 

 

iv 

 

 

The Creative Economy in Iowa: Table of Contents 

 

Introduction ................................................................................................................1 

 

 

What is the Creative Economy? ...............................................................................2 

Why Study the Creative Economy? .........................................................................3 

How is the Creative Economy Relevant to Iowa?....................................................5 

 

 

Creative Occupations.................................................................................................7 

Creative Industries.....................................................................................................9 

Industrial ñ Occupational Matrix...........................................................................12 

Creative Occupations ñ Iowa and the U.S..............................................................16 

 

 

The Current Distribution of Occupations in Iowa and the U.S..............................16 

Changes in Creative Occupations: 1990 to 2000 ...................................................19 

Gender Differences in Creative Occupations.........................................................21 

Earnings in Creative Occupations ..........................................................................23 

 

 

Creative Industries ñ Iowa and the U.S..................................................................26 

 

 

Creative Industry Employment ..............................................................................26 

Employment Changes in Creative Industries, 1990 to 2000..................................27 

Earnings Per Job in Creative Industries .................................................................29 

 

 

Creative Industrial Growth ñ Iowa Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan 

Changes .....................................................................................................................32 

The Economic Impacts of Creative Workers and Creative Firms ......................36 

 

Introduction to Terms and Scope of Analysis........................................................36 

Creative Occupation Economic Values..................................................................38 

Creative Industry Economic Values.......................................................................40 

 

 

Implications and Summary .....................................................................................52 

Works Cited or Consulted in this Report ..............................................................58 

Major Data Sources .................................................................................................60 

Appendix 1: Creative Occupations and Their Classifications ............................62 

Appendix 2: An Introduction to Economic Impact Assessment.........................69 

 

 

 

 

The Creative Economy in Iowa 

 

 

Introduction 

 

 

Congress shall have the power Ö to promote the Progress of Science and the 

useful Arts Ö. (Article 1, Section 8, The Constitution of the United States) 

 

This country was founded with an expressed acknowledgement that the 

sciences and the arts were special and to be both nurtured and protected. Technology 

and creativity drive cultural and economic growth. This maxim, apparent throughout 

history, has been strikingly evident during recent decades of rapid technological and 

 

economic change in the United States. Growth was so rapid and change so profound 

during the last years of the 20th century to warrant the declaration of a ìNew 

 

Economy,î an ìInformation Age,î and a ìKnowledge Economy.î These labels were 

attempts to characterize an economy in which innovation and the rapid dissemination 

 

of ideas were the new standard ñ the rule rather than the exception. 

 

The composition of the U.S. economy has changed to reflect the importance 

of innovation. Much of the recent growth in the U.S. economy has occurred in 

 

industries producing goods and services requiring high levels of artistic, 

professional, scientific, and technical skill. Some of the growth has occurred in 

specific kinds of manufacturing and communications systems, some has occurred in 

 

financial industries, some has occurred in business and personal services, and some 

has occurred in traditional culture-enhancing industries, like education, the arts and 

entertainment, and recreation. Meanwhile, employment in traditional commodity 

production, like agriculture, forestry, mining, and several manufacturing industries, 

has declined. Peter Coy, writing in Newsweek in an article entitled, ìThe Creative 

Economy,î and perhaps one of the first references to the phrase in print, notes that 

 

Ö advanced economies have gotten so efficient at producing food and 

physical goods that most of the workforce has been freed up to provide 

services or to produce abstract goods: data, software, news, entertainment, 

advertising, and the likeÖ. 

 

 

 

 

People are cranking out computer programs and inventions, while lightly 

 

staffed factories churn out the sofas, the breakfast cereals, the cell phones 

 

(August, 2000).

 

 From arts and entertainment, to software development and recreational 

technology, to law and education, and to engineering and the applied sciences, more 

and more of the value that is added to industrial production consists of ideas, of 

intellectual content that can be patented, copyrighted, trademarked, and marketed. 

Accordingly, the idea and the implementation of the idea becomes the valuable 

commodity in much of modern commerce. The commodification of ideas provides 

the basis for the ìCreative Economy.î 

 

What is the Creative Economy? 

 

Of late there have been a series of compilations and reports quantifying 

different aspects of what might constitute a creative economy. Richard Florida, in 

his popular book, The Rise of the Creative Class (2002), used distinct sets of creative 

occupations as his primary focus. John Howkins, in The Creative Economy (2001), 

identified 15 creative industries ranging from research and development, applied and 

performing arts, entertainment industries, software, literature, and music as his basis 

for assessment. This investigatory research is an amalgam of both focuses, and 

develops an occupationalóindustrial matrix to help us to choose our creative 

industries and our creative occupations for analysis. 

 

This study, sponsored and funded by the Iowa Department of Cultural 

Affairs, describes the creative content and the creative structure of the Iowa 

economy. Creative content refers to the mix of occupations requiring high levels of 

artistic, design, scientific, engineering, or professional skill. Creative structure refers 

to the mix of industries producing technically or artistically creative goods and 

services, or those industries employing a high fraction of creative occupations. 

 

All industry requires creativity, but some require substantially more than 

others in order to survive and thrive. This study does not slight unanalyzed 

industries or occupations as intrinsically un-creative. To conclude that would miss 

the point. The emphasis in this research is on industries and workplace activities that 

 

 

 

 

require comparatively high amounts of creative input versus traditional mechanical, 

commodity, or labor inputs. 

 

Florida tells us that creative workers ìadd economic value through their 

creativity (p. 68).î They are workers who develop new ideas, help shape literature 

and the arts, apply new techniques to material and non-material problems, and 

implement the skills and learning of extended educations in the service of education, 

commerce, and households. It is an eclectic combination of workers in a variety of 

industries and circumstances. Measuring those workers and those industries in Iowa 

is the objective of this research. 

 

Why Study the Creative Economy? 

 

Recent literature suggests that modern economic growth depends 

significantly on a variety of intangibles, generally summarized as quality of life 

variables. The National Governors Association issued a 2001 report on ìThe Role 

of the Arts in Economic Development,î where they urge governors to ìuse the arts 

effectively by promoting new partnerships among state agencies, communities, and 

the business sector and by harnessing the power of the arts and culture as tools that 

unite communities, create economic opportunity, and improve the quality of life.î 

On another promotional front, the research division of the National Endowment for 

the Arts has been producing economic summaries of the Arts since 1982. 

 

A major regional assessment of the New England arts and cultural economy 

was done in 2000. Their assessment and quantification of the economic values 

keyed on three important components of that regionís creative heritage. They looked 

at creative clusters consisting of the agglomeration of industries and talent that 

produce cultural goods. Next they identify the creative workforce, which they define 

as ìthe thinkers and the doers trained in specific cultural and artistic skillsÖ.î Last 

they characterize the creative community, which is simply the location of significant 

concentrations of creative industrial clusters and creative workers. 

 

Studies like these emphasize the role of the arts, cultural, and heritage 

organizations in promoting and sustaining economic activity in their own right, as 

well as their role providing the foundation for an enhanced quality of life. These 

 

 

 

 

studies generally argue promote the livability of an area and its overall development 

potential. Florida especially takes great pains to link the artistic and cultural 

 

activities with sets of other highly creative occupations to demonstrate that there is 

simultaneity among the different dimensions of a creative workforce that either feed 

 

off of or otherwise promote growth economically and culturally. Citing other 

research and his own, he believes that ìcreativity and diversity work together to 

 

attract talent, generate high-tech industries, and spur regional growth (p. 265).î 

Venturelli (1999) is more direct: 

 

Öa nation without a vibrant creative labor force of artists, writers, 

designers, scriptwriters, playwrights, painters, musicians, film producers, 

directors, actors, dancers, choreographers, not to mention engineers, 

scientists, researchers, and intellectuals does not possess the knowledge base 

to succeed in the Information Economy, and must depend on ideas produced 

elsewhere. (emphasis added) (p. 16) 

 

Both Florida and Venturelli argue that the nationís creative workforce must 

be assessed broadly, that to over-stratify the different occupations and the different 

 

industries with high levels of creative content may unnecessarily segregate the 

interest in this topic into traditional camps: the artistic-cultural groups pitted against 

 

the techno-scientific and professional groups. The result would be to miss much of 

what is really new about the New Economy. As Scott noted in 1999, ìÖthere are 

powerful versions of philosophy that arrogate to themselves special authority to issue 

 

warrants for aesthetic or scientific practices, but this view is increasingly in retreatÖ 

 

(p. 808).î He notes that the practice of functionally distinguishing between the 

cultural and the scientific loses sight of the importance of the cultural economy as an 

economy, but that in doing so there is not implicit a ìÖdenial of the talents or 

 

dispositions of the individual cultural worker (808).î He argues convincingly for an 

awareness of not just the artistic, but also the spatial, technical, and economic 

 

dimensions of what he calls the ìcultural economy.î 

 

This research brings the two broad workforces together, the artistic and the 

scientific, in a broad and open-minded assessment of the stateís creative workforce, 

 

its industries, and their respective economic impacts on the state of Iowa. 

 

 

 

 

How is the Creative Economy Relevant to Iowa? 

 

Iowa has a modern heritage of earnestly assessing its industrial structure, its 

strengths, and its economic vulnerabilities. Like many states it has worked hard to 

promote its advantages and its workforce. This creative economy study is relevant to 

Iowa because it links two objectives of economic development: (1) to attract and 

retain a dynamic and well-educated labor force, and (2) to balance and modernize the 

stateís industrial structure. 

 

On the industrial side, Iowaís economic development efforts have targeted 

specific sets of industries that the state feels complement its existing industrial 

structure or will provide economic stability and growth to the state. As currently 

configured, the stateís targeted industry list aligns quite strongly with the creative 

economy concept. Iowaís three broad targeted industry groups include life sciences, 

advanced manufacturing, and information solutions. Life sciences industries focus 

especially on biotechnology firms and biotech-related R & D, as well as the 

promotion of value added food and agricultural commodity processing. Advanced 

manufacturing firms generally have a high amount of technological content or are 

the inputs into technologically sophisticated manufactured goods. Information 

solutions industries include, broadly, information technologies, data processing, 

computing, and financial services. 

 

As an economic development tool, many cities in the state are beginning to 

concentrate on attracting and retaining a diverse, highly educated, and sophisticated 

population base. To do that, they are focusing on the health and well-being of their 

central business and entertainment districts and the overall livability of their 

communities. Economic development for the past two decades in Iowa has 

concentrated significantly on attracting and retaining jobs and firms. Economic 

development in the next two decades might well have to focus seriously on 

amenities, housing and recreational opportunities, and the cultural vibrancy of an 

area for it to remain competitive, not just with other Iowa cities, but with major 

regions in the Midwest. 

 

 

 

 

One business community has explicitly acknowledged the importance of the 

creative economy. In a news story on the Des Moines economy, it was recently 

 

noted: 

 

The new theory is that you attract jobs that pay well in the information age by 

creating environments that are attractive to workers. In the new age, business 

follows people - well-educated, interesting, creative people - not the other 

way around (Elbert, January 15, 2003) 

 

The incoming chairman of the Greater Des Moines Partnership, a regional economic 

 

development consortium, believes that means creating a city with 

 

Öamenities that pull people here - like a riverwalk, a new Science Center, 

Events Center, downtown library, professional soccer stadium, new 

restaurants and more. It means erecting housing close to downtown so 

people can walk to work (ibid). 

 

Along similar lines, the state, in partnership with local governments, is 

energetically and significantly investing in the promotion of cultural, recreational, 

 

and community amenities through its Vision Iowa investment program. To date 

$225 million have been spent or committed to 12 projects including several 

 

convention and events centers, riverfront development projects, recreational 

facilities, historical and cultural learning centers, and entertainment venues. 

 

In all, there is both tacit and explicit acknowledgement that for Iowa to grow, 

it needs to invest significantly in the promotion of cultural, recreational, and 

 

community amenities and attributes. The state of Iowa must compete with its 

neighbors for labor, industry, people, and new ideas. On a regional basis the state is 

 

surrounded by economic powerhouses: Chicago, Minneapolis, Omaha, Kansas City, 

St. Louis. Each of these places has a heritage of industrial strength. Each too serves 

 

as a cultural and artistic center. Iowaís potential for growth may well depend on its 

active promotion of an awareness of a creative economy and the ability of 

 

communities and the state to attract and retain both creative industries and creative 

workers. 

 

 

 

 

II 

Creative Occupations 

 

There are dozens of occupations that are considered creative for the purposes 

of this study, and they are scattered across a spectrum of disciplines. In the appendix 

to this report there is a detailed list of slightly more than 300 major occupations that 

fit into the five sub-categories listed in Table 2.1. Floridaís work, which we rely on 

for this research, allows that there is a Super-Creative Core group of workers and 

another important group called the Creative Professionals. With only slight 

modification, we have adopted this list for this study. 

 

Table 2.1 

 

Occupational Groupings 

 

Super-Creative Core Working Class 

Computer and mathematical Construction and extraction 

Architecture and engineering Installation, maintenance and repair 

Life, physical, and social sciences Production and assembly 

Education, training, and library Transportation and material movement 

Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media 

Service Class 

Creative Professionals Health care support 

Management and administration Food preparation and food services 

Business and financial operations Building and grounds maintenance 

Legal Personal care services 

Healthcare practitioners, technicians, Low-end sales 

and specialists Office and administration support 

High-end sales and sales management Community and social service 

 

Agriculture, Fishing, and Forestry 

 

The table begins with a set of super-creative occupations. These include 

highly technical occupations dealing with computers and mathematics, along with 

the applied science and design occupations of architecture and engineering. 

Physical, life and social scientists are next, followed by education and library 

professionals. The list is rounded out with artists, designers, entertainers, sports 

performers and professionals, and media occupations. These occupations constitute 

the primary creative group of professionals and are considered leaders in scientific, 

commercial, artistic, entertainment, and literary ideas. 

 

 

 

 

The next important creative group consists of the creative professionals. In 

this group we find managers and administrators, business finance specialists, along 

with lawyers, physicians, and special allied health care practitioners and technicians. 

The creative professional list also includes sales managers and high-end sales people. 

We have added community, religious, and counseling specialists to this list as their 

training and roles seem indistinguishable from many of the other professionals. 

 

The working class consists of construction, extraction, assembly and 

production workers, maintenance and repair specialists, along with transportation 

and materials handling professions. The service class is the broadest and largest 

group. It contains support positions for office, health care, and community and 

social care jobs. It also includes food preparation and other food services, building 

and grounds maintenance, and personal services. To this list we add low-end sales 

and services. Our last grouping is for agriculture, fishery, and forestry workers. 

 

Stratified thus, our analysis identifies the distribution of these occupations in 

the U.S. in the following graph. Of all nonfarm occupations, the super-creative 

group accounted for 12 percent of positions, and the creative professionals nearly 15 

percent. Combined the creative groups are 27 percent of the nationís occupations. 

The working class group is just under 26 percent of jobs. The service class accounts 

for 47 percent of nonfarm occupations, and the ag and all other sector amounts to 

just four-tenths of a percent of all occupations. 

 

Figure 2.1 

 

U.S. Occupational Distributions, 2000 

Agriculture and all 

Others 

 

 

Service Class 

46.9% 

Working Class 

0.4% Super-Creative 

11.9% 

Creative 

Professionals 

14.9% 

25.8% 

 

 

 

 

III 

Creative Industries 

 

 

Now that the broad occupational groupings have been identified, we shift our 

focus to specific industries producing innovative, technological, and artistic goods 

and services. Table 3.1 contains a relatively detailed itemization of creative 

industries. This listing was informed significantly by National Science Foundation 

research that helps us identify industries that have comparatively high spending 

levels on R & D and industries that have high numbers of scientists and engineers.* 

These, along with arts, education, and communications industries depend heavily on 

creative occupations. This listing aligns somewhat with the work of Howkins, but 

has been expanded and itemized to allow readers to truly grasp the scope of 

industrial activity that fits into this broad grouping. 

 

The manufacturing subgroup contains highly technical instrument and 

computer manufacture, along with navigation, and aerospace products. Manufacture 

of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and medical equipment are also included, as are 

creative recreational goods like toys, games, crafts, and video games. 

 

The broadcast media and communications group identifies TV and radio 

productions, motion picture activities, sound recording, and the news syndicates. 

The professional services industries range from legal, financial, architecture, to 

health care institutions. Scientific and technical picks up applied sciences like 

engineering, computer systems design, management and consulting activities, along 

with research, development, and testing services, both commercial and noncommercial. 

Membership organizations include business, labor and civic 

associations, and other nonprofit organizations. 

 

The education category includes all post-secondary education institutions, 

fine arts and vocational schools and all other educational institutions including public 

and private primary and secondary schools 

 

* National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Research and Development 

in Industry, 1999. NSF 02-312. 

 

 

 

The artistic and cultural categories are highly delineated and broken down 

into functional sub-groupings: applied, performing, visual, and literary arts, along 

with heritage institutions. To the extent that we are able, we also include and 

measure independent artists, writers, and performers. 

 

Table 3.1 

 

Creative Industry Groups 

 

Manufacturing Education 

Aerospace products All post secondary education institutions ñ 

Instruments for navigation, measuring, and electroprivate 

and public 

medical instruments Vocational schools 

Other medical equipment All other education 

Chemicals 

Pharmaceuticals and medicines Art ñ Applied 

Communications equipment and Graphic design 

signaling systems Advertising 

Semiconductors and related Commercial photography 

Computers and peripherals 

Creative Recreation: Toys and games, crafts, and Art ñ Performing 

video games (soft and hardware) Theater 

Dance 

Broadcast Media and Communications Bands, orchestras, and other entertainers 

TV and radio productions Musical instrument manufacturing 

Motion picture and sound recording 

News Syndicates Art ñ Visual 

Commercial art dealers 

Professional Services Mfg of photographic film, etc 

Legal services Photofinishing laboratories 

Accounting services Art print gravure printing 

Architecture 

Health care services Arts ñ Literary 

Book publishing 

Scientific and Technical Magazine publishing 

Engineering Newspaper publishing 

Computer systems design and related Greeting card publishing 

Management, scientific, and technical consulting 

Commercial and governmental scientific research Commercial Sports 

and development and testing facilities Racing 

Professional Sports 

Membership Organizations 

Business associations Heritage 

Labor and civic associations Museums and art galleries 

Religious organizations Historical sites 

Other non-profit organizations Heritage and theme parks 

 

Independent artists, writers, and performers 

 

10 

 

 

 

The following chart shows the distribution of creative and all other industries 

in the U.S. in 2000. In all, the creative industries accounted for 26.4 percent of 

nonfarm jobs. Education was the largest segment at 8.6 percent, followed by 

professional services at 8 percent. Scientific and technical services industries 

accounted for nearly 4 percent of nonfarm jobs, and creative manufacturing 2.7 

percent. Combined, broadcast media, all arts, and all other creative industries were 

 

3.1 percent of jobs. We can see that all other manufacturing accounted for 10.4 

percent of jobs, other services, 14.6 percent, with over 41 percent of nonfarm jobs 

found in all other firms. 

Figure 3.1 

 

U.S. Jobs by Creative and All Other Industry Distributions 

80% 

 

70% 

 

60% 

 

50% 

 

40% 

 

30% 

 

20% 

 

10% 

 

0% 

 

 

Creative Industries Other Industries 

Creative Manufacturing 

 

2.7% 

Professional Services 

 

8.0% 

Scientific & Technical Services 

 

3.9% 

All Education 

 

8.6% 

Broadcast & Media, All Arts, and 

 

3.2% 

 

All Other Creative 

Other Manufacturing 

 

10.4% 

Other Services 

 

14.6% 

Trade, Finance, and All Other 

 

41.1% 

 

Nonfarm Private Industries 

Government 

 

7.4% 

 

11 

 

 

 

IV 

Industrial ñ Occupational Matrix 

 

 

The value of our dual focus, an analysis of creative occupations and creative 

industries, is revealed when we look at the occupational make-up of industries in the 

United States. Relying on 2000 BLS data*, and controlling for our categories of 

creative industries and creative occupations, we are able to discern the distribution of 

creative jobs in the U.S. either by industry or in total. 

 

Table 4.1 shows the incidence of creative occupations and all other 

occupations within creative industries and all other industries in the United States. 

Key findings in the table include the following: 

 

.. Among creative industries, the highest incidence of creative occupations occurs 

in all other education (71.5 percent), followed by scientific and technical 

services (68.8 percent), post-secondary education (66.7 percent), performing arts 

(61 percent), and broadcast and media firms (60 percent). 

 

.. For the group of creative industries as a whole, 33 percent of the occupations are 

in the super-creative category and 24.5 percent are in creative professional 

occupations. 

 

.. The highest incidence of super-creative occupations is found in ìall other 

education,î where super-creative occupations are 66 percent of all jobs. Postsecondary 

education, broadcast and media firms, and performing arts industries 

all have over 50 percent of all jobs in super-creative occupations. 

 

All Other Education Industries: Occupational Composition 

 

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 

 

Super-Creative Core 

 

Creative Professionals 

 

Other Occupations 

 

* Bureau of Labor Statistics, ì2000 National Industry-Specific Occupational Employment and Wage 

Estimates. U.S. Department of Labor, 2002. 

12 

 

 

 

 .. The highest incidence of creative professionals is posted in professional service 

industries at 51 percent, followed much farther back by membership 

organizations and scientific and technical services both at just under 23 percent. 

 

Professional Services Industries: Occupational Composition 

 

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 

 

Super-Creative Core 

 

Creative Professionals 

 

Other Occupations 

 

.. Two other industry groups warrant mention. A large fraction of the visual arts 

category in the creative industry group contains production workers in 

commercial printing ñ hence the comparatively low fraction of creative workers 

 

(17.6 percent). Creative workers have 30 percent of the jobs in the government 

sector, one of our All Other industry classifications, which distinguishes it 

strongly from the remaining industries in that group. 

 

Table 4.1 

 

The Composition of U.S. Industries by Type of Occupation, 2000 

 

(Percentage of Industry Employment by Occupation) Creative Occupations 

 

Super-Creative Creative Creative All Other Total, All 

Industry Core Professionals Total Occupations Occupations 

 

Creative Creative Manufacturing 25.0 13.7 38.7 61.3 100.0 

Industries 

 

Broadcast and Media 51.3 8.7 60.0 40.0 100.0 

Professional Services 2.4 51.0 53.4 46.6 100.0 

Scientific & Technical Services 46.3 22.5 68.8 31.2 100.0 

Post-secondary Education 51.8 14.9 66.7 33.3 100.0 

All Other Education 65.6 5.9 71.5 28.5 100.0 

Arts-Applied 19.9 15.7 35.7 64.3 100.0 

Arts-Literary 24.0 10.5 34.5 65.5 100.0 

Arts-Performing 50.8 10.3 61.0 39.0 100.0 

Arts-Visual 9.5 8.0 17.6 82.4 100.0 

Commercial Sports 14.5 8.8 23.3 76.7 100.0 

Heritage Institutions 22.9 10.8 33.7 66.3 100.0 

Membership Organizations 10.9 22.6 33.5 66.5 100.0 

 

Total, Creative Industries 33.0 24.5 57.6 42.4 100.0 

 

Agriculture Services 1.4 11.5 12.8 87.2 100.0 

Other Manufacturing 5.4 7.7 13.1 86.9 100.0 

Other Services 5.2 11.1 16.3 83.7 100.0 

All Other Nonfarm Private 2.8 10.9 13.7 86.3 100.0 

Government 10.0 20.0 30.0 70.0 100.0 

Total, Other Industries 4.4 11.4 15.8 84.2 100.0 

Grand Total, All Industries 11.9 14.9 26.8 73.2 100.0 

 

Other Industries 

 

 

13 

 

 

 

Table 4.1 clearly illustrates the creative occupational content of our combined 

creative industry types. The incidence of creative occupations was three times 

greater in the creative industries than the all other industry average. In 2000, 

creative occupations comprised 

 

57.6 percent of creative industry jobs, and 

15.8 percent of jobs in all other industries. 

Table 4.2 shows an alternative view of the occupation-by-industry matrix. 

This view allows us to see which industries in the U.S. employ the greatest number 

of super-creative, creative professional, and all other occupations. 

 

.. Of the super-creative occupations, over 73 percent are found in the creative 

industries. The biggest employer is all other education (34.4 percent), followed 

by scientific and technical firms (15.2 percent), post-secondary education (10.3 

percent), and creative manufacturing (5.7 percent). All other industries employ 

almost 27 percent of the nationís super creative workers. 

 

Super-Creative Occupations: Distribution by Industry Group 

 

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 

 

Creative Industries 

 

Other Private Industries 

 

Government 

 

.. The percentage of creative professionals in the creative industries, 43.5 percent, 

is much less than its super-creative figure. Professional services firms account 

for 27.3 percent of these jobs, followed at much lower levels by science and 

technical services firms (5.9 percent) and creative manufacturing (3.9 percent). 

 

Creative Professional Occupations: Distribution by Industry Group 

 

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 

 

Creative Industries 

 

Other Private Industries 

 

Government 

 

14 

 

 

 

As a group, creative industries employ the majority of all creative 

occupations in the United States. In 2000, the creative industries employed 

 

56.7 percent of all creative occupations, and 

15.3 percent of all other occupations. 

All other private industries employ 35.0 percent of the nationís creative 

 

workforce, and government employs the remaining 8.3 percent. Together, private 

 

industry and government employ almost 85 percent of workers not classified in 

 

creative occupations. 

 

Table 4.2 

 

The Distribution of Occupation Types Among U.S. Industries, 2000 

 

(Percentage of Occupation Type by Industry) Creative Occupations 

 

Super-Creative Creative Creative All Other Total, All 

Industry Core Professionals Total Occupations Occupations 

 

Creative Creative Manufacturing 5.7 2.5 3.9 2.3 2.7 

Industries 

 

Broadcast and Media 1.8 0.2 0.9 0.2 0.4 

Professional Services 1.6 27.3 15.9 5.1 8.0 

Scientific & Technical Services 15.2 5.9 10.1 1.7 3.9 

Post-secondary Education 10.3 2.4 5.9 1.1 2.4 

All Other Education 34.4 2.5 16.7 2.4 6.3 

Arts-Applied 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.5 

Arts-Literary 1.1 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.6 

Arts-Performing 0.7 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.2 

Arts-Visual 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.5 

Commercial Sports 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 

Heritage Institutions 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 

Membership Organizations 0.8 1.3 1.1 0.8 0.8 

 

Total, Creative Industries 73.2 43.5 56.7 15.3 26.4 

 

Agriculture Services 0.1 0.7 0.4 1.0 0.9 

Other Manufacturing 4.7 5.4 5.1 12.3 10.4 

Other Services 6.4 10.9 8.9 16.7 14.6 

All Other Nonfarm Private 9.4 29.5 20.6 47.4 40.2 

Government 6.2 10.0 8.3 7.1 7.4 

Total, Other Industries 26.8 56.5 43.3 84.7 73.6 

Grand Total, All Industries 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 

 

The value of the industrial and occupational matrix is to point out that 

 

industrial targeting should attract creative workers, and worker targeting will provide 

 

the necessary labor pool for creative industries. The two are inextricably linked. 

 

Other Industries 

 

 

15 

 

 

 

Creative Occupations ñ Iowa and the U.S. 

 

 

The Current Distribution of Occupations in Iowa and the U.S. 

 

The composition of the national workforce provides a useful benchmark in 

assessing Iowaís creative workforce. Table 5.1 itemizes the state and the national 

occupational distributions in super-creative, creative professional, and all other 

occupations. It lists these occupations as a percentage of total nonfarm employment 

to facilitate side-by-side comparison. Finally, the table lists occupational location 

quotients for Iowa. The location quotient is simply the percentage of nonfarm 

employment in Iowa in any category divided by the national percentage in the same 

category. It allows us to gauge the relative strengths and weaknesses of Iowaís 

occupational mix. 

 

Table 5.1 

 

Employment by Major Occupation in Iowa and the United States, 2000 

 

Iowa U.S. 

Total Employment 

Iowa U.S. 

Percentage of Employment Location 

Quotient 

Creative 

Super-Creative 

Core 

Computer and Mathematical 

Architecture and Engineering 

Life, Physical, and Social Sciences 

Education, Training, and Library 

Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 

Subtotal, Super-Creative 

22,710 2,932,810 

18,820 2,575,620 

10,230 1,038,670 

89,040 7,450,860 

14,930 1,513,420 

155,730 15,511,380 

86,770 7,782,680 

1.6% 2.3% 

1.3% 2.0% 

0.7% 0.8% 

6.2% 5.7% 

1.0% 1.2% 

10.8% 12.0% 

6.0% 6.0% 

0.69 

0.66 

0.88 

1.07 

0.89 

0.90 

1.00 ManagementOccupations Business and Financial Operations 46,720 4,619,270 3.2% 3.6% 0.91 

Creative 

Community and Social Services 6,240 522,390 0.4% 0.4% 1.07 

Professional Legal 7,630 890,910 0.5% 0.7% 0.77 

Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 66,100 6,041,210 4.6% 4.7% 0.98 

Sales and Related 21,170 2,534,130 1.5% 2.0% 0.75 

Subtotal, Creative Professional 234,630 22,390,590 

390,360 37,901,970 

16.2% 17.3% 

27.0% 29.2% 

0.94 

0.92 Total, Creative 

Other 

Occupations 

Agriculture, 

Working Class, 

and Service 

Class 

Farming, Fishing, and Forestry 

Construction and Extraction 

Installation, Maintenance, and Repair 

ProductionTransportation and Material Moving 

Community and Social Services 

Healthcare Support 

Protective Service 

Food Preparation and Serving Related 

Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maint. 

Personal Care and Service 

Sales and Related 

Office and Administrative Support 

5,970 460,700 

56,770 6,187,360 

59,520 5,318,490 

175,220 12,400,080 

125,690 9,592,740 

14,640 946,610 

37,300 3,039,430 

20,130 3,009,070 

121,550 9,955,060 

43,420 4,318,070 

27,240 2,700,510 

130,820 10,972,750 

237,480 22,936,140 

1,055,750 91,837,010 

0.4% 0.4% 

3.9% 4.8% 

4.1% 4.1% 

12.1% 9.6% 

8.7% 7.4% 

1.0% 0.7% 

2.6% 2.3% 

1.4% 2.3% 

8.4% 7.7% 

3.0% 3.3% 

1.9% 2.1% 

9.0% 8.5% 

16.4% 17.7% 

73.0% 70.8% 

1.16 

0.82 

1.00 

1.27 

1.18 

1.39 

1.10 

0.60 

1.10 

0.90 

0.90 

1.07 

0.93 

1.03 Total, Other 

Total, All Occupations 1,446,110 129,738,980 100.0% 100.0% 1.00 

 

16 

 

 

 

In 2000, Iowa had 155,730 workers in super-creative occupations. This 

represented 10.8 percent of nonfarm occupations in Iowa, compared to a national 

average of 12 percent. Iowa had 234,630 workers in professional creative 

occupations. This was 16.2 percent of the stateís nonfarm occupations, compared to 

the national figure of 17.3 percent. The 390,367 workers in all creative jobs were 27 

percent of the stateís occupations, compared 29.2 percent of the national nonfarm 

workforce. 

 

Figure 5.1 displays the location quotients (LQs) for Iowa for occupations 

within the super-creative grouping. As the U.S. average for any category is 1.0, the 

values for Iowa represent the relative position in Iowa to the U.S. norm. The LQs for 

computer and mathematical and for architectural and engineering occupations in 

Iowa are .69 and .66, respectively. This means that, distributively, Iowa has only 69 

percent and 66 percent of the expected employment in these two sets of occupations. 

The life, physical, and social science quotient is .88, and the art, design, sports, and 

media quotient was .89, or 88 percent and 89 percent, respectively, of what would be 

expected. Iowa scores higher than the national average at 1.07 in education, training, 

and library occupations. In total, the weighted LQ for all super-creative 

professionals is .90, or 90 percent of what would be the norm were we to mirror 

national nonfarm averages. 

 

17 

 

 

 

Figure 5.1 

 

 

Figure 5.2 displays the same index measure of creative professionals in Iowa. 

Iowa ranks at or very near the national average in management professions and in 

healthcare practitioners and technical occupations. Iowa is higher than the national 

norm (1.07) in social religious and counseling occupations, and significantly lower 

than the national norm in legal occupations (.77) and in high-end sales occupations 

(.75). Referring back to Table 5.1, the LQ for all creative professionals is .94, higher 

than the super-creative index. The weighted value for all creative occupations is .92. 

 

18 

 

 

 

Figure 5.2 

 

 

Looking at all other occupations in Table 5.1 the state has comparatively 

higher concentrations of employment in farming, production, transportation and 

material moving, and in community and social services, as indicated by LQs greater 

than 1.10. It has significantly lower concentrations in construction and extraction 

(mining) fields and in protective services, as indicated by LQs that are lower than 

.90. 

 

Changes in Creative Occupations: 1990 to 2000 

In this section, we analyze data from the 1990 and the 2000 census for the 

 

U.S. and for Iowa to identify the composition of occupational changes in our creative 

categories. Due to differences in classification, the categories are slightly different 

than those presented thus far, but these data allow us to identify meaningful amounts 

of change and the composition of change according to census respondents. 

Table 5.2 indicates that in the 2000 census 126,885 more Iowans identified 

themselves as working in a creative field than did in 1990. According to this 

breakdown, the greatest growth in Iowa and in the U.S. occurred in the managerial 

and financial occupations, followed by education, training and library fields, and by 

math and computers. 

 

19 

 

 

 

Very high rates of growth were recorded for both the U.S. and for Iowa in 

math and computing occupations at 125.6 percent and 142.5 percent, respectively. 

Iowaís rates of growth significantly exceeded the U.S. in life, physical, and the social 

sciences (45.5 percent to 22.8 percent), managerial and financial (55.1 percent to 

 

22.6 percent), and for artists (25.9 percent to 21.7 percent). Iowa posted minor 

growth in the engineer and architects category while the U.S. totals declined by 8.5 

percent. In all, Iowaís super-creative group grew just over one percentage point 

faster than the U.S., but its creative professional occupations grew 20 percentage 

points faster than the national rate. Among its creative professional occupations, the 

state realized strong gains in managerial and financial jobs, but comparatively less in 

legal professions. Combined, there is a stark difference in creative professional 

growth in Iowa compared to the U.S. Iowaís total creative occupations grew by 

about 40 percent over the decade, while the U.S. total was just over 27 percent. The 

number of persons employed in all occupations grew by 11.2 percent in Iowa and 

12.1 percent in the United States. 

Table 5.2 

 

Employment Change in Selected Creative Occupations, 1990-2000 

 

Occupation 

Actual Change 

1990-2000 

Percentage Change 

1990-2000 

Iowa U.S. Iowa U.S. 

 

Math & Computers 15,137 1,764,210 142.5% 125.6% 

Engineers & Architects 662 (246,422) 3.1% -8.5% 

Life, Physical, and Social Sciences 3,733 223,795 45.5% 22.8% 

Education, Training, and Library 17,369 1,877,582 25.5% 34.4% 

Artists 4,532 443,734 25.9% 21.7% 

Subtotal, Super-Creative 41,434 4,062,899 33.0% 31.8% 

Managerial & Financial 70,937 3,220,122 55.1% 22.6% 

Legal 1,869 399,703 25.4% 39.5% 

Health 12,646 1,263,676 23.0% 26.8% 

Subtotal, Creative Professional 85,451 4,883,501 44.7% 24.5% 

Total Creative 126,885 8,946,400 40.1% 27.3% 

All Occupations 149,574 14,040,310 11.2% 12.1% 

 

Figure 5.3 provides additional insights into the nature of change in our super-

creative and our creative professional occupations over the decade. Managerial and 

financial occupations were disproportionately greater in Iowa, accounting for 56 

 

20 

 

 

 

percent of all creative employment growth, compared to 36 percent for the U.S. As a 

consequence, other categories of creative employment growth in Iowa generally 

were much less than the U.S. averages. The composition of U.S. creative occupation 

growth significantly outdistanced Iowa in education, training, and library skills (21 

percent to 14 percent), in math and computer occupations (20 percent to 12 percent), 

and in health occupations (14 percent to 10 percent). Of the change it is interesting 

to note that life, physical, and social scientists, artists, engineers and architects, and 

legal occupations combined accounted for a comparatively small fraction of all 

creative occupation changes over the decade. 

 

Figure 5.3 

 

Composition of Creative Occupation Change, 

Iowa and the U.S., 1990-2000 

 

 

Percentage of Creative Employment Change

 

60% 

 

50% 

 

40% 

 

30% 

 

20% 

 

10% 

 

0% 

-10% 

 

Iowa U.S. 

Math & Engineers Natural Education, Artists Managerial Legal Health 

Computers & Architects & Social Training, & Financial 

Sciences & Library 

 

Gender Differences in Creative Occupations 

 

This section explores the composition of creative employment occupations in 

Iowa by gender. Again, the data relied upon are from the 1990 and the 2000 census. 

Accordingly, these data are based on a 5 percent sample of the stateís population and 

the totals are extrapolated to the entire population of the state. 

 

If we look at the creative occupation total, we see that the occupational split 

between the genders is essentially even. There are, however, high degrees of gender

 

 

21 

 

 

 

based differences among the creative categories. In math and computers, there were, 

in 2000, two males for each female professional. In engineering and architecture, 

men were 87 percent of the professionals, and in the life, physical, and social 

sciences, men were 60 percent of the total. The combined male percentage for these 

occupations was 73 percent. 

 

Math, Computers, Engineering, Architecture, and Sciences 

 

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 

 

Male 

 

Female 

 

The number of women exceeded men by a wide margin in education, 

training, and library sciences (72 percent). Women were also strongly predominant 

in health care professions (78.5 percent). The combined female percentage for these 

occupations was 75 percent. 

 

Education, Training, Library, and Health 

 

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 

 

Male 

 

Female 

 

The gender distribution among the remaining creative occupations was more 

even. Women outnumbered men only slightly among artists (54 percent), while men 

had 62 percent of the managerial, financial, and legal jobs. 

 

When we look at the composition of job change over time by gender for each 

creative occupation category, some interesting patterns emerge. In math and 

computers, the economy added two men for every female professional. Men also 

had the edge in managerial and financial occupations, gaining 70 percent of the net 

new positions. Women accounted for significant net growth in education, training, 

and library professions (94 percent), legal professions (94 percent), health care 

professions (84 percent), and artists (62 percent). Comparatively, women accounted 

for 64 percent of the super-creative net occupation changes, men accounted for 61 

percent of creative professional growth, but when all was summed men gained more 

than women in total creative jobs, accounting for 53 percent of the change. 

 

22 

 

 

 

Table 5.3 

 

Gender-Based Characteristics of Creative Occupations in Iowa 

 

Occupation 

Gender Composition 

in 2000 

Distribution of Change by 

Gender, 1990 to 2000 

Male Female Male Female 

 

Math & Computers 65.6% 34.4% 66.1% 33.9% 

Engineers & Architects 87.4% 12.6% 43.6% 56.4% 

Life, Physical, & Social Sciences 59.7% 40.3% 51.7% 48.3% 

Education, Training, & Library 28.1% 71.9% 5.8% 94.2% 

Artists 46.3% 53.7% 38.1% 61.9% 

Subtotal, Super-Creative 46.3% 53.7% 36.1% 63.9% 

Managerial & Financial 62.8% 37.2% 70.3% 29.7% 

Legal 54.8% 45.2% 5.6% 94.4% 

Health 21.5% 78.5% 15.9% 84.1% 

Subtotal, Creative Professional 52.4% 47.6% 60.8% 39.2% 

Total Creative 50.1% 49.9% 52.7% 47.3% 

 

Earnings in Creative Occupations 

 

One important measure of the overall value of different occupations to the 

state and its economy is the average earnings. Table 5.4 details average annual 

earnings in our creative groups and all other occupations in Iowa and in the U.S. It 

also shows the Iowa average as a percentage of the U.S. average. Of the super-

creative subgroup, weighted average earnings were just under 83 percent of the U.S. 

average. For the creative professionals, earnings were just under 84 percent of the 

national amount. The weighted earnings per worker for all other Iowa occupations 

as compared to the U.S. norms were higher than for the creative groups. All other 

occupations earned 92.2 percent of the U.S. average, while all creative occupations 

earned 83.7 percent of the U.S. average. 

 

23 

 

 

 

Table 5.4 

Average Annual Earnings by Occupation in Iowa and the United States, 2000 

Iowa U.S. 

Iowa as a 

Percentage of 

the U.S. 

 

Creative 

Super-Creative 

Core 

Computer and Mathematical 

Architecture and Engineering 

Life, Physical, and Social Science 

Education, Training, and Library 

Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 

Subtotal, Super-Creative 

51,465 

45,839 

40,067 

33,077 

27,690 

37,195 

56,873 

58,279 

53,341 

49,447 

37,464 

38,641 

44,973 

68,584 

88.3% 

85.9% 

81.0% 

88.3% 

71.7% 

82.7% 

82.9% Management 

Occupations Business and Financial Operations 40,853 48,217 84.7% 

Creative 

Professional 

Community and Social Services 

Legal 

30,690 

61,805 

35,502 

72,381 

86.4% 

85.4% 

Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 40,118 47,326 84.8% 

Sales and Related 41,585 51,724 80.4% 

Subtotal, Creative Professional 47,137 

43,270 

56,226 

51,698 

83.8% 

83.7% Total, Creative 

Other 

Occupations 

Agriculture 

Working Class 

Service Class 

22,765 

27,346 

20,392 

23,083 

18,603 

29,002 

22,858 

25,043 

122.4% 

94.3% 

89.2% 

92.2% Total, Other 

Total, All Occupations 28,335 32,474 87.3% 

 

Figure 5.4 displays the Iowa and U.S. earnings comparisons for the super-

creative occupations.* The highest scores are the computer and mathematical 

workers and the education, training, and library professionals in Iowa each at 88.3 

percent of the U.S. average. Close behind are architects and engineers at 86 percent. 

Iowaís life, physical, and social scientists scored 81 percent of the national norm. 

The lowest earnings average is in the broad art, design, entertainment, sports, and 

media category. Their category average was under 72 percent of the U.S. norm in 

2000. 

 

Figure 5.5 displays the earnings averages for the creative professionals. 

These earnings do not range as much as the super-creative group. Social, religious, 

and counseling occupations earned 86.4 percent of the U.S. norm in 2000, followed 

by legal (85.4 percent), health care professionals (84.8 percent), business and 

financial (84.7 percent), and management (83 percent). Higher-end sales 

professionals earned just 80.4 percent of the U.S. average in those occupations 

 

* These values have been calculated at annual, full-time amounts, even though not all occupations are 

full-time, year-round positions. The data upon which we relied does not allow us to adjust for average 

hours and average weeks worked. 

24 

 

 

 

Figure 5.4 

 

 

 

Figure 5.5 

 

 

25 

 

 

 

VI 

Creative Industries ñ Iowa and the U.S. 

 

 

Creative Industry Employment 

 

Iowaís comparative situation regarding creative industry employment is 

displayed in Table 6.1. The table is instructive about Iowaís current overall 

composition of jobs in creative industries when compared to the U.S. We also 

display a location quotient for these jobs (LQ), which is the percent of nonfarm 

employment in Iowa in a measurement category divided by the corresponding U.S. 

percentage. 

 

Table 6.1 

 

Iowa and U.S. Employment in Creative Industries, 2000 

 

Creative Industry Group 

2000 Total Employment Percent of Nonfarm 

Employment Location 

Quotient 

Iowa U.S. Iowa U.S. 

 

Manufacturing 17,298 2,738,239 1.3 2.2 0.57 

 

Broadcast and Media 3,783 540,537 0.3 0.4 0.63 

 

Professional Services 110,577 10,736,790 8.1 8.8 0.92 

 

Scientific and Technical 17,246 3,655,069 1.3 3.0 0.42 

 

Post-secondary Education 39,764 2,935,133 2.9 2.4 1.22 

 

All Other Education 88,533 7,733,259 6.5 6.3 1.03 

 

Arts-Applied 2,427 393,629 0.2 0.3 0.55 

 

Arts-Literary 9,210 697,586 0.7 0.6 1.19 

 

Arts-Performing 1,257 218,145 0.1 0.2 0.52 

 

Arts-Visual 2,375 184,448 0.2 0.2 1.16 

 

Commercial Sports 1,805 148,394 0.1 0.1 1.09 

 

Heritage 792 127,019 0.1 0.1 0.56 

 

Membership Organizations 10,907 1,098,690 0.8 0.9 0.89 

 

Total, Creative 305,972 31,206,938 22.5 25.6 0.88 

 

All Nonfarm 1,359,871 122,136,512 100.0 100.0 1.00 

 

In 2000, Iowa had almost 306,000 jobs in creative industries, 22.5 percent of 

the nonfarm total compared to 25.6 percent for the U.S.. The category with the 

greatest number of jobs is professional services (110, 577), followed by all other 

education (88,533), and post-secondary education (39,764). As a share of all 

nonfarm jobs, Iowa has slightly fewer than the U.S. in professional services (8.1 

percent to 8.8 percent). It has slightly higher fractions of jobs than the U.S. in postsecondary 

education and in all other education, and otherwise compares similarly 

with all of the remaining categories excepting these: Iowaís creative manufacturing 

 

26 

 

 

 

share is 1.3 percent of nonfarm jobs compared to the U.S. average of 2.2 percent, and 

scientific and technical jobs in Iowa are 1.3 percent of the total compared to 3 

percent for the U.S. These differences are illustrated in the next graph. 

 

Figure 6.1 allows a visual gauge of the overall composition of creative 

industry jobs in Iowa compared to the nation. As before, we display location 

quotients (LQ). In each category, the U.S. average is 1.0. Iowa posts high LQs for 

post-secondary education, 1.22, for literary arts, 1.19, and for visual arts, 1.16. Iowa 

is relatively close to the U.S. averages in professional services, all other education, 

commercial sports, and in membership organizations. Iowa is significantly lower 

than the U.S. norm, distributively, in science and technical employment (.42), 

performing arts (.52), applied arts (.55), commercial sports (.56), creative 

manufacturing (.57), and broadcast and media industry jobs (.63). 

 

Figure 6.1 

 

Index of Creative Industry Jobs in Iowa, U.S. Average = 1.0 

 

Total, Creative 

Membership Organizations 

Heritage 

Commercial Sports 

Arts-Visual 

Arts-Performing 

Arts-Literary 

Arts-Applied 

All Other Education 

Post-secondary Education 

Scientific and Technical 

Professional Services 

Broadcast and Media 

Manufacturing 

 

 

Creative Industry 

 

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 

Location Quotient 

 

Employment Changes in Creative Industries, 1990 to 2000 

 

As with our creative occupational analysis, it is instructive to assess the 

changes in our creative industries in Iowa and in the U.S. In Table 6.2 we see the 

numerical and the percentage changes in creative industry jobs in Iowa and the U.S. 

 

27 

 

 

 

from 1990 to 2000. Professional services growth was greatest among our Iowa 

creative industries adding 16,342 jobs. The second greatest gain was in all other 

education, followed by post-secondary education (5,322) and by scientific and 

technical firms (5,146). Declines were posted in creative manufacturing (-1,055) and 

in literary arts firms (-1,888). 

 

Overall, jobs in Iowaís creative industries increased by 14 percent, compared 

to a U.S. gain of 24 percent. In nearly every major category, the U.S. out-distanced 

Iowa. Iowaís professional services jobs grew by 17 percent between 1990 and 2000, 

5 percentage points less than the U.S. experience. Iowaís scientific and technical 

jobs grew by 43 percent, 21 percentage points less than the U.S. rate of growth. 

Iowaís education categories grew by only half as much as the U.S. Creative 

manufacturing declined by 6 percent compared to a U.S. decline of 13 percent. 

 

Iowa posted performing arts gains of 49 percent compared to a U.S. gain of 

23 percent, and it had a 35 percent increase in visual arts employment where the U.S. 

experienced no growth. 

 

Table 6.2 

 

Employment Change in Iowa and U.S. Creative Industries, 

1990 to 2000 

 

Creative Industry Group 

Actual Change, 1990 to 2000 Percentage 

Change 

Iowa U.S. Iowa U.S. 

 

Manufacturing (1,055) (410,481) -6% -13% 

Broadcast and Media 176 147,732 5% 38% 

Professional Services 5,146 1,422,926 43% 64% 

Scientific and Technical 16,342 1,945,509 17% 22% 

Post-secondary Education 5,322 804,491 15% 38% 

All Other Education 11,109 1,630,647 14% 27% 

Arts-Applied 324 92,240 15% 31% 

Arts-Literary (1,888) (16,541) -17% -2% 

Arts-Performing 412 40,368 49% 23% 

Arts-Visual 617 (7) 35% 0% 

Commercial Sports 279 52,285 54% 70% 

Heritage 505 45,303 39% 44% 

Membership Organizations 827 197,636 8% 22% 

Total, Creative 38,116 5,952,108 14% 24% 

 

28 

 

 

 

Figure 6.2 displays the composition of change in creative industry jobs in 

Iowa and in the U.S. Professional jobs accounted for 43 percent of all creative 

industry job growth in Iowa, compared to 22 percent for the U.S. In the U.S. 24 

percent of creative job growth accrued to scientific and technical firms, but the 

corresponding percentage for Iowa was 13 percent. For all practical purposes, the 

remaining share changes are very small and comparatively similar. 

 

Figure 6.2 

 

 

The professional services and scientific and technical categories underscore 

the major difference in creative industry change in Iowa and in the U.S.: Iowa is 

more attractive to professional services and less attractive to scientific and technical 

firms. 

 

Earnings Per Job in Creative Industries 

 

As with the creative occupations, it is instructive to assess job quality via 

wages paid in Iowa in our creative industries compared with U.S. averages in similar 

 

29 

 

 

 

industries. These compilations are found in Table 6.2. The table also shows recent 

changes in average earnings per job. 

 

Table 6.2 

 

Average Earnings per Job in Creative Industries, Iowa and the U.S. 

 

Creative Industry Group 

2000 Average Earnings per Job Percentage Change in 

Average Earnings, 

1997-2000 

Iowa U.S. 

Iowa: 

Percent of 

U.S. Iowa U.S. 

 

Manufacturing 46,033 73,466 62.7% 17.3 34.46 

 

Broadcast and Media 29,362 55,812 52.6% 11.5 15.13 

 

Professional Services 35,523 41,906 84.8% 12.9 11.91 

 

Scientific and Technical 41,816 66,799 62.6% 14.6 25.97 

 

Post-secondary Education 35,874 34,955 102.6% 15.0 12.22 

 

All Other Education 25,016 30,801 81.2% 8.4 10.93 

 

Arts-Applied 36,992 57,994 63.8% 8.5 23.00 

 

Arts-Literary 31,370 42,743 73.4% 8.6 18.46 

 

Arts-Performing 11,071 36,968 29.9% 29.5 11.62 

 

Arts-Visual 20,587 29,251 70.4% -10.5 15.19 

 

Commercial Sports 17,162 69,906 24.6% 16.0 28.49 

 

Heritage 17,951 24,434 73.5% 13.6 10.18 

 

Membership Organizations 16,764 23,016 72.8% 13.4 14.04 

 

Total, Creative 32,249 43,935 73.4% 12.4 17.76 

 

The highest average earnings per job in our creative industries is found in 

creative manufacturing at $46,033. The next highest is in scientific and technical 

firms ($41,816), followed by applied arts ($36,992), and post-secondary education 

($35,874). The lowest values were found in the performing arts ($11,071), 

membership organizations ($16,764), commercial sports ($17,162), and heritage 

institutions ($16,764). Overall, average pay in creative industry jobs increased by 

 

12.4 percent in Iowa compared to 17.8 percent for the U.S. over the 1997 to 2000 

period. For Iowa the highest gains were found in the performing arts at 29.9 percent. 

Stronger gains were also posted in creative manufacturing (17.3 percent), visual arts 

(16 percent), post-secondary education (15 percent), and in scientific and technical 

firms (14.6 percent). 

Nationally, average wages in creative manufacturing grew by nearly twice as 

much as in Iowa. A similar pattern is also evident for scientific and technical firms, 

where the national rate of growth was 26 percent, just under twice as much as the 

 

30 

 

 

 

Iowa rate. In the applied arts firms, the national average wage growth rate was 23 

percent, nearly three times greater than the Iowa rate, and the literary art jobs 

nationally earned 18.5 percent more in 2000 than in 1997, nearly ten percentage 

points more than the average Iowan in the same industry. 

 

The average job in Iowaís creative industries paid $32,249 annually in 2000, 

which was 73.4 percent of the U.S. average for the same mix of industries. These 

indexed comparisons are displayed in Figure 6.5. Iowa workers in post-secondary 

education jobs earned slightly more than the national average at 102.6 percent. The 

workers next closest to the national average were those in professional services (84.8 

percent). Earnings much worse than the national average were posted in 

commercial sports (24.6 percent) and in the performing arts (29.9 percent). The state 

also fared comparatively poorly in broadcast and media earnings per job at 52.6 

percent of the U.S. average, scientific and technical firm jobs (62.6 percent), and in 

creative manufacturing (62.7 percent). 

 

Figure 6.5 

 

 

31 

 

 

 

VII 

Creative Industrial Growth ñ Iowa Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan 

Changes 

 

 

Over the past decade or so, there have been significantly uneven changes in 

the stateís employment and population. Most of the stateís counties have enjoyed 

nonfarm job growth, but nonfarm job growth has not been sufficient in many to 

assure population stability. Figure 7.1 dramatically portrays the fortunes of much of 

Iowa: 45 of the stateís counties lost population, and losses were significantly 

evidenced among 25 counties in the north, north-central, and southern portions of the 

state. Gains are, however, highly concentrated among Iowaís metropolitan counties 

and counties adjacent to the metropolitan counties. 

 

Figure 7.1 

 

 

The gap between job growth and population growth among the stateís 

metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is pronounced. Iowaís nonmetropolitan 

counties realized 39 percent of nonfarm job gains over the previous decade but only 

received 12 percent of the population gains. Among nonmetropolitan counties there 

 

32 

 

 

 

is an equal number of counties losing population and gaining population. This raises 

the question of the distribution of creative economy jobs in Iowa and whether there 

are population-based differences in the changes in the number of these jobs over the 

years. Stated differently, do creative jobs accrue primarily to populous areas? 

 

Table 7.1 compares sets of creative industry and all other industry job 

changes in Iowa between 1990 and 2000 for metro and nonmetro counties in Iowa. 

Of the 38,116 creative industry jobs that were added to the state economy over this 

period, 32.6 percent accrued to nonmetro counties. The highest nonmetro gain was 

in total education at 36.3 percent, followed by jobs in the professional categories at 

 

32.7 percent. Nonmetro counties gained only 17.5 percent of positions in scientific 

and technical firms and just under 7 percent of the arts and entertainment job change. 

In contrast, nonmetro counties gained the lionís share of ag services jobs and all 

other manufacturing positions over this period (66.4 percent and 89.8 percent, 

respectively). They also realized comparatively strong growth in government 

positions (46.8 percent) owing primarily to the construction of new prisons. 

Table 7.1 

 

Metro and Nonmetro Job Changes, 1990 to 2000 in Creative and All Other Industries in 

Iowa 

 

 

Total Creative Scientific & Arts and 

Creative Industries Education Manufacturing Technical Professional Entertainment Creative Total 

 

Nonmetro Change 5,969 -84 901 5,614 29 12,430 

Metro Change 10,461 -971 4,244 11,555 396 25,686 

State Total Change 16,431 -1,055 5,146 17,169 425 38,116 

Nonmetro Shares of 

Change 36.3% 7.9% 17.5% 32.7% 6.8% 32.6% 

 

Agriculture Other Other Total All Other 

All Other Industries Services Manufacturing Services All Other Government Firms 

 

Nonmetro Change 4,650 25,646 26,082 29,186 2,051 87,615 

Metro Change 2,351 2,926 52,241 74,214 2,331 134,063 

State Total Change 7,001 28,572 78,323 103,400 4,382 221,678 

Nonmetro Shares of 

Change 66.4% 89.8% 33.3% 28.2% 46.8% 39.5% 

 

The data suggest that there are concentrations of creative job change in the 

state that align with the stateís more populated regions. Figure 7.2 bears this out. 

Large fractions of creative job changes are accruing among the stateís metropolitan 

 

33 

 

 

 

and adjacent counties, with the remaining gains distributed relatively evenly across 

the state. 

 

Figure 7.2 

 

 

When we compare the two maps, there is the suggestion of a correlation 

between population growth and with creative industry employment growth. Table 

 

7.2 shows the correlations between population growth rates, employment growth 

rates for major creative industry groupings, and all other industry employment 

growth rates in Iowaís counties. The time period measured is 1990 to 2000. The 

major creative industry groupings are arts and entertainment industries, postsecondary 

education, all other education, creative manufacturing, and professional 

and scientific industries. Two of these creative industry categories are positively 

correlated with population: all other education, which includes primary and 

secondary education, and professional and scientific industries. Both of these 

categories posted stronger correlations with population growth than growth in all 

34 

 

 

 

other industries, which includes most government, trade, services, and financial 

industries. 

 

Among the creative industry groups, there is a slight correlation between job 

growth in professional and scientific industries and growth in arts and entertainment 

industries. Employment growth in these categories demonstrated a correlation of 

.335. This was the only creative group pairing in which the industries demonstrated 

a significant, positive relationship with each other. 

 

Table 7.2 

 

Correlations Between Creative Industry Employment Growth Rates 

and Other Growth Rates in Iowa's Counties 

 

Post-

Arts and Secondary All Other Creative Professional All Other 

Entertainment Education Education Manufacturing and Scientific Industries 

Arts and Entertainment 1.000 

Post-Secondary Education 0.003 1.000 

All Other Education 0.134 0.069 1.000 

Creative Manufacturing 0.118 0.259 0.050 1.000 

Professional and Scientific 0.335 0.014 0.211 0.023 1.000 

All Other Employment 0.169 -0.030 0.071 0.035 0.299 1.000 

Population Total 0.195 0.079 0.464 0.010 0.525 0.344 

 

35 

 

 

 

VIII 

The Economic Impacts of Creative Workers and Creative Firms 

 

 

Introduction to Terms and Scope of Analysis 

 

Additional economic dimensions of our creative workers and our creative 

firms in Iowa are isolated in this section. These measurements are made with an 

input-output econometric model of the Iowa economy. An input-output model (I-O) 

is an accounting of inter-industrial transactions in an area that helps us to determine 

the magnitude and value of linkages that firms have with the remainder of the state 

economy. By looking at these linkages, we can discern the value of these creative 

occupations and creative firms as they work their way through the remainder of the 

Iowa economy. 

 

These models are sometimes called ìimpactî models, because they are often 

used to discern economic impacts associated with plant closings or openings. We 

employ a highly restrictive use of the term economic impact, usually limiting it to 

situations where there is clear evidence that a firmís opening or closing is, in fact, 

causing a discernible impact on the industrial accounts in our region of study. We 

distinguish, therefore, between goods and services that are produced for export, 

versus those that are designed to be consumed locally by other firms or by 

households. Exporting goods brings money into a region. Loss of export production 

capacity results in a loss of income to the region. 

 

Goods that are produced regionally for regional consumption have economic 

values that are measurable and quite meaningful, but do not have measurable 

economic impacts on the overall structure of economic accounts in a region unless 

they result in a substantial substitution for imports. Detailed explanations of input-

output modeling and the characteristics of economic impacts are contained in an 

appendix to this study. 

 

Our dual focus on creative workers and creative industries allows two 

different approaches to measure the economic importance of the creative economy 

for the state of Iowa. Our creative workers take their pay and spend it in the state 

economy. In this case, we simply will measure the economic outcomes of their total 

 

36 

 

 

 

household consumption based on estimates of their earnings. Even though there is 

an extensive array of creative occupations in Iowa, this analysis aggregates their 

earnings by the super creative subgroup and by creative professional subgroup to 

illustrate the overall magnitude of economic value contained in their consumption. 

These values can be added together to ascertain their total economic effects in the 

state. 

 

Our creative firms and services are quite extensive, as well, but these firms 

are measured separately by industrial type. Given the extensive array of firms and 

the likelihood that many of the scientific, professional, arts, and education firms and 

institutions rely heavily on each other as both customer and supplier, it is 

inappropriate to add these values together as we would be guilty, often, of double 

counting. In this case we list highly detailed tables of potential economic effects or 

impacts by kind of firm. 

 

There are four kinds of economic values that we will measure. The first is 

called industrial output. For our purposes, industrial output is usually gross sales. 

For public entities, industrial output is simply their annual spending. The next value 

is jobs. As people can have more than one job in more than one kind of firm, the 

number of jobs is greater than the number of employed persons in an economy. 

Labor income represents wages, salaries, and normal profits to sole proprietors. It is 

an important measure because it and the jobs from which it comes are highly 

localized. Finally, we measure value added. Value added is composed of the 

aforementioned labor income, plus returns to investors in the forms of interests, 

rents, and dividends. To that we add indirect payments to governments for sales, 

use, and excise taxes. 

 

There are also four dimensions to each economic value that we account for. 

The first are the direct values. The direct amounts are those directly attributable to 

the activity that we are measuring. For the creative occupations, the direct amounts 

are the estimates of creative workersí disposable incomes that are spent in the 

regional economy. For the creative industries, the direct amounts are the output, 

employment, labor income, and value added characteristics of the creative firms. 

The second dimension, the indirect values, measure inputs into production. All 

 

37 

 

 

 

industrial and service activity requires inputs. Firms need wholesale goods, utilities, 

professional services, and financial products. The more of these goods and services 

available in a region, the greater the potential linkages with the direct firm, as firms 

are more likely to buy locally. The third measure occurs when all of the workers in 

the firms that we are measuring spend their paychecks on household goods and 

services creating induced values. We sometimes call induced values the household 

values. Finally, when we add the direct, indirect, and induced values, we get the 

total values. The total values represent the duplicated accounting of transactions in 

an economy attributable to some level of productivity or some level of consumption. 

 

Creative Occupation Economic Values 

 

The first measure of the economic importance of the creative economy is the 

estimation of the work-based purchasing power of Iowaís creative workers. The 

specific distribution of earnings is displayed in Table 8.1. Among the Super Creative 

workers, $2.95 billion is found in the education, training, and library group. The 

smaller groupings are in arts, design, etc, at $413.4 million, and in life, physical, and 

the social sciences at $409.9 million. All super creative core occupations in Iowa 

earned an estimated $5.8 billion in 2000, just over a third of all creative earnings in 

Iowa. In the creative professional group, managers earned $4.93 billion, followed by 

health care practitioners and allied workers at $2.7 billion. The smallest group at 

$1.9 billion is found in the social, religious, and counseling occupations. In all, the 

creative professionals earned $11.1 billion in 2000, close to two-thirds of the total for 

all creative workers. 

 

Before proceeding with the analysis, a few adjustments need to be made. 

First, the values must be adjusted to reflect disposable income. According to U.S. 

Bureau of Labor Statistics data for 2000, our adjustment factor for disposable income 

is 84.2 percent. This leaves $14.229 billion in disposable income for creative 

workers that were entered into our model. Once those values were entered, the 

model determined that $5.7 billion of that amount was used for purchases outside of 

the Iowa economy. That leaves $8.57 billion, 50.8 percent of total creative 

occupational earnings that are in fact spent in the Iowa economy. 

 

38 

 

 

 

Table 8.1 

 

Earnings in Iowa's Major Creative Occupational Groups, 2000 

 

Total Earnings 

Percent of 

Total 

Super-

Creative 

Core 

Computer and MathematicalArchitecture and Engineering 

Life, Physical, and Social Science 

Education, Training, and Library 

Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 

1,168,771,674 

862,687,271 

409,888,296 

2,945,214,122 

413,404,996 

6.9% 

5.1% 

2.4% 

17.4% 

2.4% 

Subtotal, Super-Creative 5,792,430,930 34.3% 

Creative 

Professional 

Management 

Business and Financial Operations 

Social, Religious, and Counseling 

Legal 

Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 

Sales and Related (High-End) 

4,934,849,785 

1,908,635,162 

191,506,800 

471,569,970 

2,651,819,879 

880,364,800 

29.2% 

11.3% 

1.1% 

2.8% 

15.7% 

5.2% 

Subtotal, Creative Professional 11,059,754,463 65.5% 

Total, Creative 16,890,705,301 100.0% 

 

Adjustments 

 

Amount Available for Household Spending 14,228,711,825 84.2% 

Amount Spent Outside of the Iowa Economy 5,655,661,312 33.5% 

Amount Spent in the Iowa Economy 8,573,050,513 50.8% 

 

The results of the input-output analysis of creative occupation are displayed 

in table 8.2. The values are summarized for the super creative workers and for the 

creative professionals separately, along with the totals for the two groups of Iowa 

workers. These data represent the estimated spending in Iowa by Iowaís creative 

workers on household goods. 

 

Iowaís creative workers spent an estimated $8.57 billion on goods and 

services that were supplied by Iowa firms. That is the direct amount of industrial 

output stimulated displayed in Table 8.2 for all creative occupations. The Iowa 

economy needed 132,671 workers to supply those goods and services to creative 

worker households. Iowaís firms required inputs to supply these goods and services 

that cost $2.062 billion. These are the indirect industrial output values. In 

providing these inputs, the indirect sector required 26,178 jobs. When the workers in 

the direct firms and the indirect firms spent their labor incomes in the state economy, 

they helped to stimulate another $2.43 billion in induced industrial output, which in 

turn required 36,615 jobs. When all of these effects are added up, Iowaís creative 

workers are responsible for $13.1 billion in industrial output (or sales), support 

 

39 

 

 

 

195,464 workers earning $4.7 billion in labor income, and help create a total of 

$8.002 billion in value added. 

 

The table also contains a statistic called the total multiplier. A multiplier is 

simply the ratio of the total value divided by the direct value in each economic 

category. An output multiplier of 1.52 means that for every dollar of creative 

workers household spending generated in Iowa, $.52 in additional industrial output is 

sustained in the rest of the economy. The multiplier of 1.53 for labor income means 

that for every $1 paid to workers supplying goods and services to Iowaís creative 

worker households, $.53 in additional labor income is sustained in the rest of the 

economy. Finally, the job multiplier of 1.47 means that for every job need to 

directly supply goods and services to creative worker households, 47/100ths of 

another job is sustained in Iowa. 

 

Table 8.2 

 

The Economic Values of Iowa's Creative Occupations 

 

 Total 

Direct Indirect Induced TotalMultiplier 

Super Creative 

Industrial Output 2,952,676,835 711,135,712 839,548,513 4,503,361,104 1.53 

Value Added 1,860,077,050 382,249,561 514,046,793 2,756,373,424 1.48 

Labor Income 1,056,071,424 259,228,736 300,877,563 1,616,177,688 1.53 

Jobs 45,812 9,020 12,676 67,507 1.47 

Creative Professionals 

Industrial Output 5,620,373,678 1,351,113,312 1,585,580,133 8,557,067,038 1.52 

Value Added 3,547,907,489 727,194,440 970,834,169 5,245,936,179 1.48 

Labor Income 1,990,906,686 493,349,747 568,240,539 3,052,496,990 1.53 

Jobs 86,859 17,158 23,940 127,957 1.47 

All Creative Occupations 

Industrial Output 8,573,050,513 2,062,249,024 2,425,128,646 13,060,428,142 1.52 

Value Added 5,407,984,539 1,109,444,001 1,484,880,962 8,002,309,603 1.48 

Labor Income 3,046,978,110 752,578,483 869,118,102 4,668,674,678 1.53 

Jobs 132,671 26,178 36,615 195,464 1.47 

 

Creative Industry Economic Values 

 

The next assessment is of Iowaís creative industries. In this section, 

economic characteristics of specific industries that have high creative occupational 

content are analyzed. At the outset it is important to set some guidelines to the 

interpretation of the following data. Industries in Iowa purchase goods and services 

from each other; consequently, a portion of one firmís productivity may be a portion 

of anotherís. When we compile input-output accounts of regional economies, we 

statistically account for these inter-industrial transactions. We can legitimately sum 

 

40 

 

 

 

their direct values and compare them, but given the tremendous array of firms that 

we classify as creative industries, it is not appropriate to sum their total economic 

effects to determine their overall slice of the Iowa economy. Table 8.3 displays the 

direct values of Iowaís creative industries and compares them with the remainder of 

the economy. 

 

Table 8.3 

 

Iowa Creative Industry Direct Economic Values, 2000 

 

Industrial Output Jobs Labor Income Value Added 

Creative Group 

All Arts and Heritage 1,516,392,389 16,059 505,591,534 662,333,509 

All Education 3,107,890,877 128,297 4,039,963,224 4,043,095,891 

Professional Services 7,855,266,226 110,577 4,358,112,050 4,999,086,162 

Creative Manufacturing 3,615,086,083 17,298 883,445,819 1,146,029,007 

Scientific and Technical 1,160,643,932 17,246 800,137,584 812,401,611 

Broadcast and Media 507,761,180 3,783 123,245,489 160,518,747 

Commercial Sports 91,070,957 1,805 34,363,762 55,418,739 

Membership Organizations 253,335,501 10,907 202,856,864 203,403,091 

Subtotal, Creative 18,107,447,145 305,972 10,947,716,326 12,082,286,758 

All Other Nonfarm Industry 144,348,331,855 1,518,659 38,899,859,674 70,322,416,242 

Agriculture and Ag Services 12,740,501,000 128,812 438,960,000 4,146,189,000 

Total 175,196,280,000 1,953,443 50,286,536,000 86,550,892,000 

 

Iowaís creative industries generated $18.11 billion in direct industrial output 

in 2000. In so doing, these industries required 305,972 jobs that paid $10.95 billion 

in labor income. Total value added was $12.1 billion. The comparable worth of the 

jobs that are generated in creative industries is worth noting: creative industries in 

Iowa are 16 percent of the total jobs, but they are 22 percent of labor income. In 

short, creative industry jobs pay substantially more than the average per job in Iowa. 

According to this model of the Iowa economy, earnings in creative industry jobs are 

60 percent higher per job than the average earnings in all other Iowa industries. 

 

Among all subgroups, professional services firms generated the most 

economic activity, accounting directly for 110,577 jobs, $4.36 billion in labor 

income, and $5.0 billion in value added. All education groups combined amounted 

to 128,297 jobs and $4.04 billion in labor income. All arts categories combined 

amounted to 16,059 jobs paying just under $506 million in labor income. 

 

41 

 

 

 

Tables 8.4 through 8.6 itemize direct, indirect, induced, and total economic 

effects for our detailed creative industries. Interpretation of the tables is relatively 

straightforward: Using the first category in Table 8.4, we see that the direct 

industrial output of the inorganic chemicals industry in 2000 was $31.4 million. 

That industry had 121 jobs and paid $6.4 million in labor income. Value added 

(which includes labor income) was $13.3 billion. In producing its direct output, this 

industry required $9.51 million in supplies and services. These are the indirect 

industrial output values. To supply those inputs, the indirect industries needed 79 

jobs paying an additional $2.4 million in labor income. When the workers in the 

direct and the indirect sectors spent their combined paychecks, they helped to 

stimulate an additional $6.7 million in induced output, which, in turn, required 101 

more jobs paying $2.0 million in labor income. In total this sector linked with the 

remainder of the Iowa economy to an extent that it produced $47.63 million in total 

industrial output, 302 jobs, $10.8 million in labor income, and $21.3 million in value 

added. 

 

Also listed in Tables 8.4 through 8.6 are the total multipliers. Multipliers are 

merely the ratio of the total values to the direct values. The industrial output 

multiplier for inorganic chemicals is 1.52. That means that for every dollar of direct 

output in this industry, $.52 in additional industrial output is supported in the rest of 

the economy. The multiplier of 2.49 for jobs means that for every job in this sector, 

nearly a job and a half (1.49) are supported in the rest of the state economy. The 

income multiplier of 1.6 means that for every dollar of labor income generated in this 

industry, an additional $.60 is supported in labor income in the remainder of the 

economy. 

 

Generally speaking, the higher the multiplier, the higher the value of the firm 

to your economy. Multipliers do not imply causation, necessarily, and care must be 

used with them. In most instances, multipliers help us to understand the strength of 

linkages with the existing economy an industry may have. The higher the output 

multiplier, the higher and more extensive the linkages with other industries in the 

state. A high job multiplier usually means that the direct job has relatively high pay 

and the industry that we are measuring has strong linkages to regional suppliers. 

Goods producing firms tend to have high multipliers and retail and service producing 

 

42 

 

 

 

firms tend to have comparatively lower multipliers, especially for jobs and for labor 

income. Following is a summary of the major industries in the remaining tables. 

 

Creative Manufacturing 

 

Among the creative manufacturing firms in Iowa (Table 8.4) , three groups 

stand out. The search and navigation equipment manufacturing group had direct 

output of $1.844 billion, employed 9,218 workers, and paid $525.9 million in labor 

income. This sector linked with the rest of the economy to produce $2.9 billion in 

industrial output, 22,724 jobs, and $868 million in labor income. 

 

The very broad category of drugs is also well represented in the model. This 

sector had direct output of $403 million, provided 2,277 jobs, and paid $94.4 million 

in labor income. In total, this sector links to $585.3 million in total industrial output, 

4,653 total jobs, and $149.3 million in total labor income. 

 

Radio and TV communication equipment is the third creative manufacturing 

category of note. This sector had $307.4 million in output, 1,015 jobs, and paid 

$39.7 million labor income. Linked with the rest of the economy, this sector 

supported $469.9 million in total output, 2,714 jobs, and $85.3 million in labor 

income. This sector also has very high job, labor income, and value added 

multipliers. 

 

Arts, Media, and Commercial Sports 

 

The top three industries in this sector are found in newspaper publishing, 

periodical publishing, and in radio and TV broadcasting (Table 8.5). The 

newspaper sectorís industrial output was $532.3 million in 2000. It had 6,720 jobs, 

and it paid $186.7 million in labor income. This sector supported $828.8 million in 

total industrial output in Iowa, 10,833 jobs, and $291.9 million in labor income. 

 

Radio and TV broadcasting had $480.1 million in direct output, 3,378 jobs, 

and paid $108 million in labor income. In all, this sector accounted for $768.2 

million in total industrial output, 7,660 jobs, and $193.6 million in labor income. 

 

43 

 

 

 

Iowaís periodical publishing sector had $322.7 million in output, required 

1,670 jobs, and paid $104.6 million in labor income. In total, this sector linked with 

the rest of the economy and produced $504.1 million in industrial output, 4,171 jobs, 

and $170.3 million in labor income. 

 

Education, Professional, and Scientific and Technical 

 

There are four very large sectors in this grouping. The first is hospitals with 

$3.8 billion in direct industrial output, 61,112 workers, and $1.996 billion in labor 

income. This sector links with $6.22 billion in total Iowa industrial output, 96,188 

jobs, and $2.81 billion in labor income. 

 

All doctors and dental offices and services had $3.15 billion in output in 

2000, required 31,579 jobs, and paid $1.65 billion in labor incomes. Total industrial 

output attributable to this sector was $5.1 billion, employing 61,059 jobs, and paying 

$2.3 billion in labor income. 

 

All other education includes Iowaís primary and secondary schools, mostly. 

Industrial output is analogous to total spending by Iowaís schools systems and 

amounted to $2.98 billion. The system had 86,729 jobs, and paid $2.41 billion in 

labor income. In total, this sector linked with $5.26 billion in total industrial output, 

107,156 jobs, and $3.8 billion in labor income. 

 

The last large category is post-secondary education, Iowaís private and public 

colleges and universities. In 2000, their total output was $1.93 billion, they had 

39,764 jobs, and they paid $1.58 billion in labor income. In total this sector was 

responsible for $3.3 billion in total output, 60,192 jobs, and $2.94 billion in total 

labor income. 

 

44 

 

 

 

Table 8.4 

 

Estimates of Total Economic Values: All Manufacturing Firms 

 

Model Category Economic Values Direct Indirect Induced Total 

Total 

Multiplier 

Inorganic Chemicals Nec. Industrial Output 

Jobs 

31,400,040 

121 

9,508,278 

79 

6,719,797 

101 

47,628,115 

302 

1.52 

2.49 

Labor Income 

Value Added 

6,391,187 

13,260,113 

2,365,455 

4,254,772 

2,000,972 

3,766,548 

10,757,614 

21,281,434 

1.68 

1.60 

Cyclic Crudes, Interm. & 

Indus. Organic Chem. Industrial Output 124,678,619 55,646,063 18,626,238 198,950,919 1.60 

Jobs 179 464 281 925 5.16 

Labor Income 10,842,854 14,408,559 5,772,735 31,024,148 2.86 

Value Added 23,948,443 25,361,856 10,633,659 59,943,958 2.50 

Drugs Industrial Output 

Jobs 

402,967,625 

2,277 

90,656,433 

991 

91,719,461 

1,385 

585,343,519 

4,653 

1.45 

2.04 

Labor Income 94,393,855 27,102,647 27,762,271 149,258,772 1.58 

Value Added 190,206,872 45,039,085 51,795,233 287,041,191 1.51 

Special Industry 

Machinery N.E.C. Industrial Output 200,363,518 73,578,092 32,808,725 306,750,335 1.53 

Jobs 528 792 495 1,815 3.44 

Labor Income 23,022,194 25,178,383 10,972,815 59,173,392 2.57 

Value Added 31,210,001 40,058,941 19,417,645 90,686,587 2.91 

Electronic Computers Industrial Output 

Jobs 

179,334,156 

690 

58,309,245 

458 

42,940,488 

648 

280,583,889 

1,797 

1.56 

2.60 

Labor Income 47,320,075 16,281,371 14,431,203 78,032,649 1.65 

Value Added 55,416,289 23,644,135 25,473,704 104,534,128 1.89 

Computer Storage 

Devices Industrial Output 7,647,252 2,560,078 1,075,663 11,282,993 1.48 

Jobs 28 22 16 66 2.39 

Labor Income 698,995 629,558 302,172 1,630,725 2.33 

Value Added 850,796 1,042,007 587,437 2,480,240 2.92 

Computer Terminals Industrial Output 

Jobs 

24,434 

202 

26,472 

51,109 

2.09 

1.11 

Labor Income 93,055 141 21,122 114,318 1.23 

Value Added 93,055 359 63,092 156,506 1.68 

Computer Peripheral 

Equipment, Industrial Output 7,069,401 2,106,392 1,341,490 10,517,283 1.49 

Jobs 25 18 20 63 2.57 

Labor Income 1,199,250 543,885 395,686 2,138,821 1.78 

Value Added 1,423,977 876,179 748,703 3,048,860 2.14 

Telephone and Telegraph 

Apparatus Industrial Output 538,129 162,020 93,322 793,472 1.47 

Jobs 1 1 1 4 3.77 

Labor Income 66,738 31,031 22,183 119,952 1.80 

Value Added 154,883 56,799 47,519 259,202 1.67 

Radio and Tv 

Communication 

Equipment Industrial Output 307,435,647 115,386,440 47,112,976 469,935,062 1.53 

Jobs 1,015 988 711 2,714 2.67 

Labor Income 39,690,849 29,810,805 15,783,503 85,285,156 2.15 

Value Added 72,416,104 44,658,432 27,906,342 144,980,879 2.00 

Communications 

Equipment N.E.C. Industrial Output 704,837 101,975 254,030 1,060,842 1.51 

Jobs 4 1 4 9 2.15 

Labor Income 396,753 29,906 96,605 523,265 1.32 

Value Added 514,554 42,045 160,294 716,893 1.39 

 

45 

 

 

 

Table 8.4 (Continued) 

 

Estimates of Total Economic Values: All Manufacturing Firms 

 

Model Category Economic Values Direct Indirect Induced Total 

Total 

Multiplier 

Semiconductors and 

Related Devices Industrial Output 21,826,908 4,313,543 5,820,407 31,960,858 1.46 

Jobs 75 51 88 214 2.86 

Labor Income 7,047,293 1,548,290 1,949,838 10,545,422 1.50 

Value Added 11,789,209 2,331,469 3,447,518 17,568,197 1.49 

Aircraft Industrial Output 

Jobs 

2,537,167 

11 

1,250,572 

11 

482,932 

4,270,671 

30 

1.68 

2.65 

Labor Income 201,769 253,020 104,031 558,821 2.77 

Value Added 287,718 452,200 236,715 976,633 3.39 

Aircraft and Missile 

Engines and Parts Industrial Output 112,216,959 42,853,300 29,219,613 184,289,872 1.64 

Jobs 537 461 441 1,440 2.68 

Labor Income 22,473,146 12,824,076 8,091,052 43,388,273 1.93 

Value Added 31,531,266 19,689,604 15,857,168 67,078,039 2.13 

Aircraft and Missile 

Equipment, Industrial Output 46,066,327 10,314,573 14,860,767 71,241,667 1.55 

Jobs 306 117 224 647 2.11 

Labor Income 15,631,524 2,920,016 4,241,458 22,792,997 1.46 

Value Added 21,173,517 4,839,567 8,172,808 34,185,893 1.61 

Search & Navigation 

Equipment Industrial Output 1,844,620,857 586,639,237 471,534,896 2,902,794,990 1.57 

Jobs 9,218 6,387 7,119 22,724 2.47 

Labor Income 525,912,212 181,545,947 160,440,564 867,898,724 1.65 

Value Added 582,686,787 258,454,220 281,413,245 1,122,554,252 1.93 

Mechanical Measuring 

Devices Industrial Output 119,069,154 33,968,405 34,957,989 187,995,548 1.58 

Jobs 833 323 528 1,683 2.02 

Labor Income 41,182,879 10,246,053 11,652,160 63,081,093 1.53 

Value Added 46,169,024 15,517,409 20,655,975 82,342,408 1.78 

Instruments To Measure 

Electricity Industrial Output 6,307,742 2,145,837 1,402,577 9,856,156 1.56 

Jobs 37 20 21 78 2.13 

Labor Income 1,357,067 580,943 439,530 2,377,540 1.75 

Value Added 1,556,492 913,295 804,857 3,274,643 2.10 

Analytical Instruments Industrial Output 

Jobs 

1,852,407 

612,065 

482,078 

2,946,550 

24 

1.59 

2.60 

Labor Income 504,588 193,698 158,503 856,790 1.70 

Value Added 561,901 281,523 282,986 1,126,409 2.00 

Optical Instruments & 

Lenses Industrial Output 2,517,161 616,216 894,277 4,027,655 1.60 

Jobs 37 7 14 58 1.57 

Labor Income 1,253,072 221,638 334,177 1,808,886 1.44 

Value Added 1,268,786 301,947 559,247 2,129,979 1.68 

Surgical and Medical 

Instrument Industrial Output 40,698,088 16,462,255 8,571,058 65,731,401 1.62 

Jobs 255 171 129 555 2.18 

Labor Income 7,378,045 5,266,921 2,873,712 15,518,678 2.10 

Value Added 8,739,748 8,191,696 5,078,851 22,010,295 2.52 

Surgical Appliances and 

Supplies Industrial Output 54,232,490 20,146,394 11,746,866 86,125,750 1.59 

Jobs 291 235 177 703 2.42 

Labor Income 10,983,338 6,645,534 4,003,921 21,632,793 1.97 

Value Added 13,237,873 9,717,737 7,016,549 29,972,159 2.26 

 

46 

 

 

 

Table 8.4 (Continued) 

 

Estimates of Total Economic Values: All Manufacturing Firms 

 

Model Category Economic Values Direct Indirect Induced Total 

Total 

Multiplier 

Dental Equipment and 

Supplies Industrial Output 2,230,046 1,017,200 427,020 3,674,267 1.65 

Jobs 13 11 6 31 2.32 

Labor Income 293,072 347,062 145,592 785,726 2.68 

Value Added 336,496 541,495 255,102 1,133,093 3.37 

X-Ray Apparatus Industrial Output 315,082 133,286 46,285 494,653 1.57 

Jobs 1 1 1 3 2.36 

Labor Income 86,680 90,535 40,256 217,471 2.51 

Value Added 86,680 115,911 58,901 261,491 3.02 

Electromedical Apparatus Industrial Output 36,117,542 13,980,450 5,407,916 55,505,907 1.54 

Jobs 176 123 82 381 2.17 

Labor Income 3,892,913 3,744,920 1,735,721 9,373,554 2.41 

Value Added 4,659,530 5,813,141 3,138,342 13,611,013 2.92 

Ophthalmic Goods Industrial Output 6,297,862 2,894,983 1,689,131 10,881,976 1.73 

Jobs 62 30 26 117 1.90 

Labor Income 1,621,616 905,224 573,517 3,100,357 1.91 

Value Added 1,803,972 1,344,688 1,007,040 4,155,700 2.30 

Jewelry, Precious Metal Industrial Output 1,054,854 54,983 154,996 1,264,833 1.20 

Jobs 9 1 2 12 1.34 

Labor Income 214,973 20,423 53,402 288,798 1.34 

Value Added 386,047 32,350 93,069 511,465 1.32 

Silverware and Plated 

Ware Industrial Output 13,717,817 2,757,446 3,103,807 19,579,070 1.43 

Jobs 115 32 47 194 1.69 

Labor Income 4,219,863 1,142,431 1,217,701 6,579,995 1.56 

Value Added 7,672,954 1,550,451 1,990,426 11,213,830 1.46 

Games, Toys, and 

Childrens Vehicles Industrial Output 41,243,961 8,898,921 10,995,722 61,138,604 1.48 

Jobs 442 88 166 697 1.58 

Labor Income 15,075,965 3,148,992 4,137,026 22,361,983 1.48 

Value Added 22,585,921 4,636,461 6,900,315 34,122,697 1.51 

 

47 

 

 

 

Table 8.5 

 

Estimates of Total Economic Values: Arts, Media, and Commerical Sports 

 

Creative 

Group Model Category Economic Values Direct Indirect Induced Total 

Total 

Multiplier 

Arts-Applied Advertising Industrial Output 184,900,303 59,517,004 63,097,413 307,514,720 1.66 

Jobs 1,968 962 953 3,882 1.97 

Labor Income 82,606,407 24,776,305 24,623,235 132,005,947 1.60 

Value Added 92,238,215 33,350,848 40,351,267 165,940,330 1.80 

Photofinishing, Commercial 

Photography Industrial Output 45,349,205 17,785,913 12,555,063 75,690,181 1.67 

Jobs 459 354 190 1,002 2.19 

Labor Income 16,985,993 11,629,885 6,573,070 35,188,948 2.07 

Value Added 21,108,888 13,360,617 9,458,682 43,928,187 2.08 

Arts-Literary Newspapers Industrial Output 532,264,972 142,020,537 154,496,828 828,782,337 1.56 

Jobs 6,720 1,781 2,333 10,833 1.61 

Labor Income 186,732,024 51,141,793 53,988,523 291,862,341 1.56 

Value Added 245,982,172 76,703,391 93,417,633 416,103,197 1.69 

Periodicals Industrial Output 322,682,945 91,859,122 89,555,811 504,097,878 1.56 

Jobs 1,670 1,149 1,352 4,171 2.50 

Labor Income 104,574,357 34,227,710 31,501,352 170,303,419 1.63 

Value Added 145,268,949 49,094,949 54,326,810 248,690,708 1.71 

Book Publishing Industrial Output 177,098,734 62,929,733 32,905,830 272,934,298 1.54 

Jobs 820 679 497 1,995 2.43 

Labor Income 29,254,301 21,217,823 11,466,223 61,938,347 2.12 

Value Added 49,426,949 33,391,908 19,868,892 102,687,749 2.08 

Arts-

Performing Musical Instruments Industrial Output 4,399,177 769,931 1,225,932 6,395,040 1.45 

Jobs 60 8 19 86 1.44 

Labor Income 1,840,074 276,633 480,175 2,596,881 1.41 

Value Added 2,502,874 391,264 785,499 3,679,638 1.47 

Theatrical Producers, Bands 

Etc. Industrial Output 45,710,614 16,195,728 11,073,945 72,980,287 1.60 

Jobs 758 342 167 1,268 1.67 

Labor Income 10,447,272 6,550,680 3,925,949 20,923,900 2.00 

Value Added 13,357,600 8,808,028 6,743,972 28,909,600 2.16 

Amusement and Recreation 

Services, N.E.C. Industrial Output 18,715,156 3,942,553 6,242,833 28,900,543 1.54 

Jobs 438 57 94 589 1.34 

Labor Income 3,146,188 562,771 857,575 4,566,535 1.45 

Value Added 8,493,349 1,550,189 2,643,793 12,687,331 1.49 

 

48 

 

 

 

Table 8.5 (Continued) 

 

Estimates of Total Economic Values: Arts, Media, and Commerical Sports 

 

Creative 

Group Model Category Economic Values Direct Indirect Induced Total 

Total 

Multiplier 

Arts-Visual Commercial Printing Industrial Output 58,575,549 15,048,000 14,487,139 88,110,688 1.50 

Jobs 506 166 219 891 1.76 

Labor Income 18,537,753 5,789,859 5,520,562 29,848,174 1.61 

Value Added 21,850,253 8,329,382 9,151,061 39,330,696 1.80 

Portrait and Photographic 

Studios Industrial Output 40,695,642 14,121,998 13,607,239 68,424,880 1.68 

Jobs 1,193 280 205 1,679 1.41 

Labor Income 20,140,719 8,771,182 6,734,573 35,646,475 1.77 

Value Added 22,225,960 10,244,590 9,918,824 42,389,374 1.91 

Photofinishing, Commercial 

Photography Industrial Output 66,787,910 26,194,151 18,490,433 111,472,495 1.67 

Jobs 676 521 279 1,476 2.19 

Labor Income 15,560,830 10,654,111 6,021,574 32,236,515 2.07 

Value Added 24,112,683 15,261,833 10,804,652 50,179,168 2.08 

Broadcast 

and Media Radio and TV Broadcasting Industrial Output 480,062,433 176,049,935 112,136,343 768,248,712 1.60 

Jobs 3,378 2,589 1,693 7,660 2.27 

Labor Income 108,012,137 49,520,865 36,053,155 193,586,157 1.79 

Value Added 145,144,768 70,282,580 65,128,199 280,555,548 1.93 

Other Media Related 

Services Industrial Output 1,728,063 630,579 426,438 2,785,080 1.61 

Jobs 21 9 6 37 1.77 

Labor Income 1,232,475 798,985 465,644 2,497,104 2.03 

Value Added 1,232,475 751,458 529,614 2,513,547 2.04 

Motion Pictures Industrial Output 25,970,684 13,089,666 5,839,067 44,899,417 1.73 

Jobs 385 178 88 651 1.69 

Labor Income 14,000,877 9,665,911 5,439,957 29,106,745 2.08 

Value Added 14,141,504 11,644,214 7,742,488 33,528,206 2.37 

Commercial Commercial Sports Except 

Sports Racing Industrial Output 17,698,035 2,430,064 7,032,491 27,160,591 1.53 

Jobs 448 41 106 594 1.33 

Labor Income 10,238,855 1,040,319 2,611,635 13,890,809 1.36 

Value Added 11,316,864 1,493,091 4,383,950 17,193,905 1.52 

Racing and Track Operation Industrial Output 73,372,922 25,248,723 20,610,087 119,231,732 1.63 

Jobs 1,357 393 311 2,061 1.52 

Labor Income 24,124,907 9,253,084 7,723,179 41,101,170 1.70 

Value Added 44,101,875 14,816,466 12,907,207 71,825,548 1.63 

Other Nonprofit 

Heritage Organizations Industrial Output 19,212,180 5,108,615 7,507,563 31,828,358 1.66 

Jobs 792 72 113 977 1.23 

Labor Income 15,765,617 3,164,900 4,295,658 23,226,174 1.47 

Value Added 15,765,617 4,254,651 7,247,517 27,267,785 1.73 

 

49 

 

 

 

Table 8.6 

 

Estimates of Total Economic Values: Education, Professional, and Scientific and Technical 

 

Creative Group Model Category Economic Values Direct Indirect Induced Total 

Total 

Multiplier 

Post-secondary Colleges, Universities, 

Education Schools Industrial Output 1,929,088,083 565,316,021 783,044,053 3,277,448,157 1.70 

Jobs 39,764 8,605 11,823 60,192 1.51 

Labor Income 1,582,675,455 659,417,575 699,807,896 2,941,900,926 1.86 

Value Added 1,582,675,455 905,905,130 1,195,614,283 3,684,194,868 2.33 

All Other Elementary and 

Education Secondary Schools Industrial Output 2,983,171,584 956,031,913 1,324,241,799 5,263,445,296 1.76 

Jobs 86,729 8,605 11,823 107,156 1.24 

Labor Income 2,411,650,422 659,417,575 699,807,896 3,770,875,894 1.56 

Value Added 2,411,650,422 905,905,130 1,195,614,283 4,513,169,835 1.87 

Other Educational 

Services Industrial Output 92,035,390 31,329,951 28,718,999 152,084,341 1.65 

Jobs 1,805 408 434 2,647 1.47 

Labor Income 45,637,346 16,768,028 14,199,056 76,604,431 1.68 

Value Added 48,770,014 20,954,134 21,671,053 91,395,201 1.87 

Professional 

Services Doctors and Dentists Industrial Output 3,146,304,626 611,449,695 1,351,020,060 5,108,774,382 1.62 

Jobs 31,579 9,083 20,398 61,059 1.93 

Labor Income 1,650,537,278 232,560,702 430,125,063 2,313,223,043 1.40 

Value Added 2,019,669,340 350,632,774 781,038,448 3,151,340,563 1.56 

Hospitals Industrial Output 3,795,550,027 838,827,943 1,581,973,864 6,216,351,834 1.64 

Jobs 61,112 11,191 23,885 96,188 1.57 

Labor Income 1,996,734,536 292,651,397 523,054,595 2,812,440,529 1.41 

Value Added 2,214,453,756 448,546,466 931,131,301 3,594,131,523 1.62 

Other Medical and 

Health Services Industrial Output 245,524,987 59,907,360 83,667,550 389,099,897 1.58 

Jobs 5,161 735 1,263 7,159 1.39 

Labor Income 171,424,274 35,231,460 47,539,722 254,195,456 1.48 

Value Added 175,133,357 45,840,456 67,461,369 288,435,181 1.65 

Legal Services Industrial Output 471,137,396 59,884,861 242,631,048 773,653,305 1.64 

Jobs 6,552 892 3,663 11,107 1.70 

Labor Income 282,968,920 19,592,485 71,075,285 373,636,690 1.32 

Value Added 333,382,668 31,246,957 134,996,977 499,626,603 1.50 

 

50 

 

 

 

Table 8.6 (Continued) 

 

Estimates of Total Economic Values: Education, Professional, and Scientific and Technical 

 

Creative Group Model Category Economic Values Direct Indirect Induced Total 

Total 

Multiplier 

Architectural Services Industrial Output 84,772,147 30,259,503 30,691,925 145,723,575 1.72 

Jobs 932 570 463 1,965 2.11 

Labor Income 52,378,496 20,342,656 16,714,816 89,435,968 1.71 

Value Added 52,378,496 24,220,550 26,482,777 103,081,824 1.97 

Accounting, Auditing and 

Bookkeeping Industrial Output 274,158,167 31,517,223 143,966,485 449,641,875 1.64 

Jobs 5,242 263 888 6,393 1.22 

Labor Income 204,068,545 16,858,511 51,594,446 272,521,502 1.34 

Value Added 204,068,545 19,510,585 82,320,639 305,899,770 1.50 

Scientific and Computer and Data 

Technical Processing Services Industrial Output 245,319,352 21,585,650 123,487,629 390,392,631 1.59 

Jobs 4,517 289 1,864 6,670 1.48 

Labor Income 239,684,461 13,122,245 57,966,728 310,773,434 1.30 

Value Added 244,369,662 15,751,091 91,374,948 351,495,701 1.44 

Engineering Services Industrial Output 303,330,789 108,274,228 109,821,519 521,426,535 1.72 

Jobs 3,333 2,041 1,658 7,032 2.11 

Labor Income 174,230,183 67,667,170 55,599,639 297,496,992 1.71 

Value Added 174,230,183 80,566,476 88,091,477 342,888,136 1.97 

Management and 

Consulting Services Industrial Output 456,891,520 135,100,995 160,308,157 752,300,672 1.65 

Jobs 6,135 2,259 2,420 10,815 1.76 

Labor Income 289,313,655 90,799,065 87,276,961 467,389,681 1.62 

Value Added 294,784,090 110,432,900 136,410,159 541,627,150 1.84 

Research, Development 

& Testing Services Industrial Output 155,102,271 46,698,967 56,674,680 258,475,918 1.67 

Jobs 3,261 710 856 4,827 1.48 

Labor Income 96,909,285 29,691,939 29,068,037 155,669,261 1.61 

Value Added 99,017,676 38,509,162 48,222,400 185,749,239 1.88 

Membership Other Nonprofit 

Organizations Organizations Industrial Output 31,936,028 8,491,950 12,479,674 52,907,651 1.66 

Jobs 1,316 119 188 1,624 1.23 

Labor Income 30,905,946 6,204,276 8,420,943 45,531,165 1.47 

Value Added 30,905,946 8,340,557 14,207,587 53,454,089 1.73 

Business Associations Industrial Output 99,027,160 14,637,799 49,414,850 163,079,808 1.65 

Jobs 2,090 197 746 3,033 1.45 

Labor Income 83,046,540 6,352,977 20,239,106 109,638,623 1.32 

Value Added 83,592,767 9,388,889 34,596,956 127,578,612 1.53 

Labor and Civic 

Organizations Industrial Output 95,736,390 15,014,530 46,705,859 157,456,779 1.64 

Jobs 7,290 210 705 8,205 1.13 

Labor Income 84,468,888 6,850,004 20,674,605 111,993,497 1.33 

Value Added 84,468,888 10,408,679 35,315,175 130,192,741 1.54 

 

51 

 

 

 

IX 

Implications and Summary 

 

 

The fortunes of firms, industries, and even regions can rise and fall with the 

life cycles of the goods and services they produce. Just as the Iron Belt corroded to 

the Rust Belt, there may yet come a time when ìSilicon Valleyî is a derisive term 

describing the geographic relic of an outdated technology. Some regions are still 

chasing firms that peddle the latest trends and technologies. Other regions have 

recognized that a better long-term strategy may be to attract people who shape trends 

and discover technologies. There is ample evidence that Iowa may well be on the 

way to changing how it thinks about economic growth, how it thinks about its 

people, and the skills that it wishes its workforce to possess. 

 

Two decades ago there was an uproar over the perceived lack of 

competitiveness of Americaís workers in science and mathematics. In response, 

elementary, secondary, and post-secondary systems retooled their curricula and 

aggressively promoted scientific and technical education and training. A decade ago, 

communities and states were cautioned to upgrade telecommunications capacities 

significantly else risk missing out on the emerging information revolution. Ours is a 

nation that has significant technical talent and technical capacity. Industrial 

productivity is extremely high, and Americaís industrial capacity is well developed. 

 

Events of the past couple of years have taught us, however, that technology 

adoption goes through boom and bust cycles. There is much more to regional 

growth than investment in technological infrastructure and technical talent. An 

economy needs to be managed, services need to be professionally delivered to both 

households and to industry, workers and families need to be entertained and afforded 

recreational opportunities. Cities are not merely enterprise zones. Cities are the sum 

of all that makes community, culture, and place special. 

 

There is a wonderful simultaneity to economic growth. People go where they 

expect to find work. Industries go where they expect to find people to work for 

them. The trick is attracting the right kinds of people and the right kinds of 

 

52 

 

 

 

industries that allow communities, regions, and states to grow in new and exciting 

ways. 

 

Strong arguments have been made that Iowaís creative occupational structure 

needs more attention from state leaders than it perhaps has received in the past. 

There are conscious efforts currently underway in Iowa to promote the retention of 

selective grades of creative workers, especially recent university graduates, to entice 

professionals to consider Iowa, and to attract the kinds of firms that will provide 

employment opportunities for the stateís talented workforce and help to lift the state 

above current rates of economic change. More has been said about retaining 

scientists, engineers, and technical professionals than other creative workers. There 

are those arguing that active and energetic programs promoting artistic and cultural 

enhancement will play a vital role in assuring prosperity for Iowa and enhancing the 

quality of life in the state ñ that the state needs to expand its definition of what it 

wants to retain ñ that the state needs to look at all of the creative components of the 

stateís workforce and industrial structure as it figures out what it wants to do next. 

 

There have been several assessments of Iowaís economy over the years. 

Generally speaking, the state has produced nonfarm jobs, but it has had trouble 

holding onto its people. During the 1990s, the state gained in excess of 350,000 

nonfarm jobs, but only attracted 90,000 people. Current population growth is among 

the lowest in the nation, and there have been aggregate erosions in the earnings value 

of jobs ñ the average nonfarm job holder in Iowa in 1982 made about 92 percent of 

the U.S. average; by 2000 that fraction had declined to 73 percent. These simple 

statistics alone raise serious questions about the overall efficacy of state and local job 

creation efforts. Political and industrial leaders recognize these facts. The state 

currently is poised to shift its emphasis in economic development away from 

traditional job creation to targeted industrial growth, retaining its key professionals, 

and attracting more people to Iowa. 

 

 Jobs in and of themselves are important, but the quality of jobs and the 

quality of communities is measured in many more ways that just the jobs produced. 

That is the core of a creative economy focus to economic development: that 

community vitality, industrial innovation, artistic and cultural outlets all are 

 

53 

 

 

 

inextricably linked and create highly desirable economic activities and highly 

desirable communities in which to live. 

 

This report has uncovered a myriad of details, facts, and categories all 

relating to Iowaís creative workers and the industries that employ them. The effort 

has been part statistical assessment, part data archeology, and part accounting. The 

idea was to determine a modern baseline of Iowaís creative industrial and 

occupational structures, compare Iowaís creative composition to the nationís, and to 

assess just how large this component of the economy is. There are qualitative 

components, as well: we assess the quality of these jobs as measured by mean 

earnings, we look at the mix and distribution of these jobs by gender, and we 

acknowledge rural-urban differentials that are evident in creative industrial growth in 

Iowa. 

 

What have we learned? Iowa has some strengths and some weaknesses in its 

creative industrial and occupational structures. Iowa has a slightly lower share of 

employment in super-creative and creative professions than the U.S., but within 

those categories, it exceeds the national averages in education and social work, and it 

is at the national average in managerial professions. 

 

Even though Iowaís creative occupational fraction is less than the U.S., it has 

made strong gains relative to the U.S. over the past decade. Rates of growth in 

Iowaís creative occupations exceeded national average rates of growth in all 

categories except for education, legal, and health. Categorically, Iowaís 

performance was slightly stronger in the creative professional group than in the 

super-creative group. All together, creative occupations were 85 percent of the net 

growth in the number of employed persons in Iowa between 1990 and 2000. The 

corresponding value in the United States was 64 percent. 

 

Distinct gender preferences are evident in Iowa and the U.S. In Iowa, men 

dominate the math and computers, engineering and architecture, and the science 

occupations. Women dominate the education, training, library, and health 

occupations. Over the decade of the 1990s, however, women made small gains in 

science and larger gains in engineering jobs. Nearly two of three super creative job 

 

54 

 

 

 

gains were by women over that decade, but the vast majority of those gains were in 

education professions. In contrast, women gained just 39 percent of the new creative 

professional positions, despite strong gains in the individual categories of legal 

services and health care. 

 

Iowaís creative workers earn, on average, slightly less than 84 percent of the 

national average, but there are categories that are closer to the national average than 

others. Computer and mathematical workers, for example, earn roughly 88 percent 

of the national norm, while art, design, entertainment, sports, and media workers 

earn 72 percent of the U.S. average. 

 

Jobs in Iowaís creative industries account for 22.5 percent of all nonfarm 

jobs, compared to a U.S. average of 25 percent. Nationally, there was a 24 percent 

gain in creative industry jobs between 1990 and 2000. The corresponding growth 

amount for Iowa was 14 percent. Though most Iowa creative industries grew more 

slowly than their national counterparts, jobs in performing and the visual arts grew 

more rapidly than the national rate. 

 

Earnings per job in creative industries are dismal in many instances when 

compared to the U.S. In all, Iowaís creative industries pay only 73 percent of the 

national average. Growth in average earnings between 1990 and 2000 was slower in 

Iowa than in the U.S. Iowaís creative industry job-holder earnings grew faster than 

the U.S. average in post-secondary education, performing arts, and in heritage 

institutions. 

 

Iowa is doing better in creative occupation growth than in creative industry 

growth. Location quotients by occupation suggest the state has close to its expected 

number of creative occupations in many categories. Earnings by occupation are 

more competitive with national averages than they are at the industrial level. 

 

Iowa is very self conscious about the welfare of its rural areas. During the 

1990s, non-metropolitan counties accounted for almost 33 percent of the growth in 

creative industry jobs. Their highest creative industry percentage is in all education, 

 

55 

 

 

 

at 36 percent of all jobs. They only accumulated 7 percent of the new arts and 

entertainment jobs. 

 

We measured two dimensions of overall economic value of creative 

employment in Iowa. The first looked at the purchasing power of all creative jobs. 

Of the $16.9 billion in annual earnings to Iowaís creative workers, we estimated that 

they directly spent $8.6 billion on Iowa produced goods and services, which in total 

supported $13.1 billion in total industrial output, $4.7 billion in total labor income in 

all other industries, and 195,464 additional jobs. 

 

The second dimension looked at creative industries by eight major categories. 

Initially, looking only at the direct values of the firms, Iowaís creative industries 

account for $18.1 billion in output, 306,000 jobs, and $10.95 billion in labor income. 

Creative industry pay earnings that are 60 percent higher per job than the in all other 

industries. Although it is not appropriate to sum all industrial findings, we itemize 

the potential economic impacts of all of Iowaís creative industries in the study. 

 

An honest summary would admit that Iowa must work hard for its creative 

economy to become competitive with the rest of the nation. It has extremely strong 

educational foundations, but it lags in computer, mathematics, and scientific and 

technical talent and capacity, as measured by the composition of the creative 

workforce. It also has a dearth of artistic employees. If one is to believe that growth 

in science and technology is correlated with growth in the arts, and that both of 

which in turn correlate with community growth, then this study suggests areas in 

which the stateís economic development efforts might target. 

 

Politically and professionally there is currently an obvious open-mindedness 

in Iowa regarding what is needed to stimulate economic and social growth. Iowaís 

universities are magnets for talent, and state policies and community development 

efforts are attempting to parlay those strengths into industrial growth. Iowaís major 

cities are highly livable places with exciting and diverse economies, entertainment 

options, and social structures. Iowaís rural spaces are diverse and interesting, and 

they offer hosts of recreation and entertainment opportunities. 

 

56 

 

 

 

Comparatively few places in Iowa will likely realize the majority of 

 

economic and social growth over the next decade. Still, the overall livability in those 

places and the rest of the state depends on far more than merely the number of jobs 

they create. There is great opportunity for growth and enhancement in nontraditional 

areas of Iowaís economy ñ its artistic, cultural, and recreational 

institutions. These opportunities can only be enhanced when state and community 

leaders recognize that the sum of a community is greater than the sum of its jobs. 

 

57 

 

 

 

Works Cited or Consulted in this Report 

 

Bell, Daniel. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social 

Forecasting.. New York: Basic Books. 1973. 

 

Bluestone, Barry and Harrison, Bennett. The Deindustrialization of America. New 

York: Basic Books. 1982. 

 

Coy, Peter. ìThe Creative Economy.î Business Week. 28 August 2000. 

 

Florida, Richard. The Rise of the Creative Class. New York: Basic Books, 2002. 

 

Gerds, Warren. ìArts Play Key Role in Area Economy.î Green Bay Press-Gazette, 

Green Bay, Wisconsin. 31 October, 2002. 

 

Gouldner, Alvin W. The Future of the Intellectual and the Rise of the New Class. 

New York: Seabury Press. 1979. 

 

Howkins, John. The Creative Economy: How People Make Money from Ideas. 

London: Allen Lane. The Penguin Press, 2001. 

 

Ingelhart, Ronald J. The Silent Revolution: Changing Values and Political Styles 

Among Western Publics. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1977. 

 

Landefeld, Steven J. and Fraumeni, Barbara M. ìMeasuring the New Economy.î 

Survey of Current Business, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, March, 2001. Pp. 

23 ñ 40. 

 

Nakamura, Leonard I. Economics and the New Economy: ìThe Invisible Hand 

Meets Creative Destruction.î Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of 

Philadelphia. July/August 2000. Pp. 15-30. 

 

National Endowment for the Arts. ìThe Arts in GDP: Consumers spent $9.4 Billion 

on Admission Receipts for Performing Arts Events in 1998.î Research Division 

Note #75. March, 2000. 

 

New England Council/Mt. Auburn Associates. ìThe Creative Economy Initiative: 

The Role of the Arts and Culture in New Englandís Economic Competitiveness.î 

Boston: The New England Council. June, 2000. 

 

NGA Center for Best Practices. ìThe Role of the Arts in Economic Development.î 

Issue Brief: Economic and Technology Policy Studies. National Governors 

Association. June 2001. 

 

58 

 

 

 

Norton, R.D. ìIndustrial Policy and American Renewal.î Journal of Economic 

Literature, Vol. XXIV (March 1986). Pp. 1-40. 

 

Opinion. ìíCreative Classí Key to Economic Growth.î Wausau Daily Herald, 

Wausau, Wisconsin. 14 September, 2002. 

 

Schumpter, Joseph. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. New York: Harper. 

1942. 

 

Scott, Allen J. ìThe Cultural Economy: Geography and the Creative Field.î Media, 

Culture, and Society, 21(6). Pp. 807-817. 

 

Venturelli, Shalini. ìFrom the Information Economy to the Creative Economy: 

Moving Culture to the Center of International Policy.î Cultural Comment Series. 

Center for Arts and Culture, Washington, D.C. 2001. Pp 1-40. 

 

59 

 

 

 

Major Data Sources 

 

.. Employment and earnings by detailed occupation in 2000: Employment and 

earnings by detailed occupation for Iowa and the United States were obtained 

from the Bureau of Labor Statistics program entitled Occupational Employment 

Statistics. The OES program provides annual estimates of employment and 

wages for about 750 occupations and 400 nonfarm industries for the nation and 

individual states. The estimates do not include self-employed persons. 

 

.. Occupation by industry in 2000: National occupational employment estimates 

by specific industry were obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The 

2000 OES National Industry-Specific Occupational Employment and Wage 

Estimates are calculated from data collected in a national survey of employers of 

every size, in every state, including metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas. 

These survey data are used to calculate industry-specific occupational 

employment and wage estimates for most 2- and 3-digit Standard Industrial 

Classification (SIC) industry groups. 

 

.. Changes in employment by occupation, 1990-2000: Data comparing 

occupational employment in Iowa and the United States in 1990 and 2000 were 

obtained from Summary File 3 (SF3) Decennial Census of the United States. 

The Census Bureau compiles the SF3 data from the sample of households 

receiving the long-form questionnaire. Approximately 19 million housing units 

(about 1 in 6 households) received the Census 2000 long-form questionnaire. 

 

Drastic revisions in the occupational classification system between 1990 and 

2000 make direct comparison of employment change over time impossible for 

some occupations. The 1990 Census classified occupations according to the 

1980 Standard Occupation Classification (SOC). The 2000 Census classified 

occupations according to the revised 1998 SOC. Wherever possible, the 1990 

occupational data were matched to the corresponding 2000 data. 

 

.. Employment by gender and occupation, 1990-2000: Iowa and U.S. data on 

employment by gender and occupation were obtained from the 1990 and 2000 

Decennial Census SF3 data. 

 

.. Employment by industry, 1990-2000: Employment and earnings by industry for 

Iowa and the United States were obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

The program providing these data is called the Covered Employment and Wages 

(CEW) program. This program, also referred to as the ES-202 program, 

produces comprehensive employment and wage data by detailed industry for 

workers covered by unemployment insurance laws. The BLS derives its data 

from quarterly tax reports submitted to State Employment Security Agencies by 

employers subject to State unemployment insurance (UI) laws and from Federal 

 

60 

 

 

 

agencies subject to the Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees 

(UCFE) program. Jobs that are exempt or otherwise not covered by 

unemployment insurance are not included in the CEW/ES-202 tabulations. In 

the private sector, this may include wage and salary agricultural employees, self-

employed farmers, self-employed nonagricultural workers, domestic workers, 

and unpaid family workers. Additionally, many state and local government 

workers are also excluded. Certain types of nonprofit employers, such as 

religious organizations, are given a choice of coverage or exclusion in a number 

of states, so data for their employees are reported to a limited degree. 

 

.. Iowa county-level employment by industry: The BLS CEW data are provided at 

the county, state, and national levels. Public access to county level data is 

limited in many specific industries due to non-disclosure requirements. Iowa 

State University has access to the unsuppressed county-level data from the Iowa 

Department of Employment Statistics. 

 

.. Gross output by industry: National estimates of the market value of production 

by industry for 1990 and 2000 were obtained from the Bureau of Economic 

Analysis Gross Output by Detailed Industry series. These files provide annual 

estimates of gross output for detailed nonmanufacturing industries. Gross output 

represents the market value of an industry's production, including commodity 

taxes. This value differs from GDP by industry, which measures an industry's 

contribution to GDP, and is often referred to as value added. GDP by industry is 

obtained as gross output less intermediate goods and services purchased. 

 

61 

 

 

 

Appendix 1: Creative Occupations and Their Classifications 

 

Group Code Occupation 

Super-Creative Core 15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations 

15-1011 Computer and Information Scientists, Research 

15-1021 Computer Programmers 

15-1031 Computer Software Engineers, Applications 

15-1032 Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software 

15-1041 Computer Support Specialists 

15-1051 Computer Systems Analysts 

15-1061 Database Administrators 

15-1071 Network and Computer Systems Administrators 

15-1081 Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts 

15-2011 Actuaries 

15-2021 Mathematicians 

15-2031 Operations Research Analysts 

15-2041 Statisticians 

15-2091 Mathematical Technicians 

15-9999 Computer and Mathematical Occupations - Other 

Super-Creative Core 17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations 

17-1011 Architects, Except Landscape and Naval 

17-1012 Landscape Architects 

17-1021 Cartographers and Photogrammetrists 

17-1022 Surveyors 

17-2011 Aerospace Engineers 

17-2021 Agricultural Engineers 

17-2031 Biomedical Engineers 

17-2041 Chemical Engineers 

17-2051 Civil Engineers 

17-2061 Computer Hardware Engineers 

17-2071 Electrical Engineers 

17-2072 Electronics Engineers, Except Computer 

17-2081 Environmental Engineers 

17-2111 Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors 

17-2112 Industrial Engineers 

17-2121 Marine Engineers and Naval Architects 

17-2131 Materials Engineers 

17-2141 Mechanical Engineers 

17-2151 Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers 

17-2161 Nuclear Engineers 

17-2171 Petroleum Engineers 

17-3011 Architectural and Civil Drafters 

17-3012 Electrical and Electronics Drafters 

17-3013 Mechanical Drafters 

17-3021 Aerospace Engineering and Operations Technicians 

17-3022 Civil Engineering Technicians 

17-3023 Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technicians 

17-3024 Electro-Mechanical Technicians 

17-3025 Environmental Engineering Technicians 

17-3026 Industrial Engineering Technicians 

 

62 

 

 

 

Group Code Occupation 

17-3027 Mechanical Engineering Technicians 

17-3031 Surveying and Mapping Technicians 

17-9999 Architecture and Engineering Occupations - Other 

Super-Creative Core 19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations 

19-1010 Agricultural and Food Scientists 

19-1021 Biochemists and Biophysicists 

19-1022 Microbiologists 

19-1023 Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists 

19-1031 Conservation Scientists 

19-1032 Foresters 

19-1041 Epidemiologists 

19-1042 Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists 

19-2011 Astronomers 

19-2012 Physicists 

19-2021 Atmospheric and Space Scientists 

19-2031 Chemists 

19-2032 Materials Scientists 

19-2041 Environmental Scientists and Specialists, Including Health 

19-2042 Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers 

19-2043 Hydrologists 

19-3011 Economists 

19-3021 Market Research Analysts 

19-3022 Survey Researchers 

19-3031 Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists 

19-3032 Industrial-Organizational Psychologists 

19-3041 Sociologists 

19-3051 Urban and Regional Planners 

19-3091 Anthropologists and Archeologists 

19-3092 Geographers 

19-3093 Historians 

19-3094 Political Scientists 

19-4011 Agricultural and Food Science Technicians 

19-4021 Biological Technicians 

19-4031 Chemical Technicians 

19-4041 Geological and Petroleum Technicians 

19-4051 Nuclear Technicians 

19-4091 Environmental Science and Protection Technicians, Including Health 

19-4092 Forensic Science Technicians 

19-4093 Forest and Conservation Technicians 

19-9999 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations - Other 

Super-Creative Core 25-0000 Education, Training, and Library Occupations 

25-1011 Business Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1021 Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1022 Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1031 Architecture Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1032 Engineering Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1041 Agricultural Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1042 Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1043 Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1051 Atmospheric, Earth, Marine, and Space Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary 

 

63 

 

 

 

Group Code Occupation 

25-1052 Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1053 Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1054 Physics Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1061 Anthropology and Archeology Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1062 Area, Ethnic, and Cultural Studies Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1063 Economics Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1064 Geography Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1065 Political Science Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1066 Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1067 Sociology Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1071 Health Specialties Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1072 Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1081 Education Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1082 Library Science Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1111 Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1112 Law Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1113 Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1121 Art, Drama, and Music Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1122 Communications Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1123 English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1124 Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1125 History Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1126 Philosophy and Religion Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1191 Graduate Teaching Assistants 

25-1192 Home Economics Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1193 Recreation and Fitness Studies Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-1194 Vocational Education Teachers, Postsecondary 

25-2011 Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education 

25-2012 Kindergarten Teachers, Except Special Education 

25-2021 Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education 

25-2022 Middle School Teachers, Except Special and Vocational Education 

25-2023 Vocational Education Teachers, Middle School 

25-2031 Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Vocational Education 

25-2032 Vocational Education Teachers, Secondary School 

25-2041 Special Education Teachers, Preschool, Kindergarten, and Elementary School 

25-2042 Special Education Teachers, Middle School 

25-2043 Special Education Teachers, Secondary School 

25-3011 Adult Literacy, Remedial Education, and Ged Teachers and Instructors 

25-3021 Self-Enrichment Education Teachers 

25-4010 Archivists, Curators, and Museum Technicians 

25-4021 Librarians 

25-4031 Library Technicians 

25-9011 Audio-Visual Collections Specialists 

25-9021 Farm and Home Management Advisors 

25-9031 Instructional Coordinators 

25-9041 Teacher Assistants 

25-9999 Education, Training, and Library Occupations - Other 

Super-Creative Core 27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations 

27-1011 Art Directors 

27-1013 Fine Artists, Including Painters, Sculptors, and Illustrators 

 

64 

 

 

 

Group Code Occupation 

27-1014 Multi-Media Artists and Animators 

27-1021 Commercial and Industrial Designers 

27-1022 Fashion Designers 

27-1023 Floral Designers 

27-1024 Graphic Designers 

27-1025 Interior Designers 

27-1026 Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers 

27-1027 Set and Exhibit Designers 

27-2011 Actors 

27-2012 Producers and Directors 

27-2021 Athletes and Sports Competitors 

27-2022 Coaches and Scouts 

27-2023 Umpires, Referees, and Other Sports Officials 

27-2031 Dancers 

27-2032 Choreographers 

27-2041 Music Directors and Composers 

27-2042 Musicians and Singers 

27-3010 Announcers 

27-3020 News Analysts, Reporters and Correspondents 

27-3031 Public Relations Specialists 

27-3041 Editors 

27-3042 Technical Writers 

27-3043 Writers and Authors 

27-3091 Interpreters and Translators 

27-4011 Audio and Video Equipment Technicians 

27-4012 Broadcast Technicians 

27-4013 Radio Operators 

27-4014 Sound Engineering Technicians 

27-4021 Photographers 

27-4031 Camera Operators, Television, Video, and Motion Picture 

27-4032 Film and Video Editors 

Creative 

Professionals 

27-9999 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media Occupations - Other 

11-0000 Management Occupations 

11-1011 Chief Executives 

11-1021 General and Operations Managers 

11-1031 Legislators 

11-2011 Advertising and Promotions Managers 

11-2021 Marketing Managers 

11-2022 Sales Managers 

11-2031 Public Relations Managers 

11-3011 Administrative Services Managers 

11-3021 Computer and Information Systems Managers 

11-3031 Financial Managers 

11-3040 Human Resources Managers 

11-3051 Industrial Production Managers 

11-3061 Purchasing Managers 

11-3071 Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers 

11-9011 Farm, Ranch, and Other Agricultural Managers 

11-9021 Construction Managers 

 

65 

 

 

 

Group Code Occupation 

11-9031 Education Administrators, Preschool and Child Care Center/Program 

11-9032 Education Administrators, Elementary and Secondary School 

11-9033 Education Administrators, Postsecondary 

11-9041 Engineering Managers 

11-9051 Food Service Managers 

11-9061 Funeral Directors 

11-9071 Gaming Managers 

11-9081 Lodging Managers 

11-9111 Medical and Health Services Managers 

11-9121 Natural Sciences Managers 

11-9131 Postmasters and Mail Superintendents 

11-9141 Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers 

11-9151 Social and Community Service Managers 

11-9999 Management Occupations - Other 

Creative 

Professionals 13-0000 Business and Financial Operations Occupations 

13-1011 Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes 

13-1021 Purchasing Agents and Buyers, Farm Products 

13-1022 Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products 

13-1023 Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products 

13-1031 Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators 

13-1032 Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage 

13-1041 

Compliance Officers, Except Agriculture, Construction, Health and Safety, and 

Transportation 

13-1051 Cost Estimators 

13-1061 Emergency Management Specialists 

13-1071 Employment, Recruitment, and Placement Specialists 

13-1072 Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists 

13-1073 Training and Development Specialists 

13-1111 Management Analysts 

13-1121 Meeting and Convention Planners 

13-2011 Accountants and Auditors 

13-2021 Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate 

13-2031 Budget Analysts 

13-2041 Credit Analysts 

13-2051 Financial Analysts 

13-2052 Personal Financial Advisors 

13-2053 Insurance Underwriters 

13-2061 Financial Examiners 

13-2071 Loan Counselors 

13-2072 Loan Officers 

13-2081 Tax Examiners, Collectors, and Revenue Agents 

13-2082 Tax Preparers 

13-9999 Business and Financial Operations Occupations - Other 

Creative 

Professionals 23-0000 Legal Occupations 

23-1011 Lawyers 

23-1021 Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers 

23-1022 Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators 

23-1023 Judges, Magistrate Judges, and Magistrates 

23-2011 Paralegals and Legal Assistants 

 

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Group Code Occupation 

23-2091 Court Reporters 

23-2092 Law Clerks 

23-2093 Title Examiners, Abstractors, and Searchers 

23-9999 Legal Occupations - Other 

Creative 

Professionals 29-0000 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations 

29-1011 Chiropractors 

29-1020 Dentists 

29-1031 Dietitians and Nutritionists 

29-1041 Optometrists 

29-1051 Pharmacists 

29-1061 Anesthesiologists 

29-1062 Family and General Practitioners 

29-1063 Internists, General 

29-1064 Obstetricians and Gynecologists 

29-1065 Pediatricians, General 

29-1066 Psychiatrists 

29-1067 Surgeons 

29-1071 Physician Assistants 

29-1081 Podiatrists 

29-1111 Registered Nurses 

29-1121 Audiologists 

29-1122 Occupational Therapists 

29-1123 Physical Therapists 

29-1124 Radiation Therapists 

29-1125 Recreational Therapists 

29-1126 Respiratory Therapists 

29-1127 Speech-Language Pathologists 

29-1131 Veterinarians 

29-2011 Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists 

29-2012 Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technicians 

29-2021 Dental Hygienists 

29-2031 Cardiovascular Technologists and Technicians 

29-2032 Diagnostic Medical Sonographers 

29-2033 Nuclear Medicine Technologists 

29-2034 Radiologic Technologists and Technicians 

29-2041 Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics 

29-2051 Dietetic Technicians 

29-2052 Pharmacy Technicians 

29-2053 Psychiatric Technicians 

29-2054 Respiratory Therapy Technicians 

29-2055 Surgical Technologists 

29-2056 Veterinary Technologists and Technicians 

29-2061 Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses 

29-2071 Medical Records and Health Information Technicians 

29-2081 Opticians, Dispensing 

29-2091 Orthotists and Prosthetists 

29-9010 Occupational Health and Safety Specialists and Technicians 

29-9091 Athletic Trainers 

29-9999 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations - Other 

 

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Group 

Creative 

Professionals 

Code Occupation 

Miscellaneous occupations from other major categories 

21-1011 Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors 

21-1012 Educational, Vocational, and School Counselors 

21-1013 Marriage and Family Therapists 

21-1014 Mental Health Counselors 

21-1015 Rehabilitation Counselors 

21-1091 Health Educators 

21-2011 Clergy 

21-2021 Directors, Religious Activities and Education 

41-3011 Advertising Sales Agents 

41-3021 Insurance Sales Agents 

41-3031 Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents 

41-4011 

Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Technical and Scientific 

Products 

41-4012 

Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Except Technical and 

Scientific Products 

41-9021 Real Estate Brokers 

41-9031 Sales Engineers 

 

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Appendix 2: An Introduction to Economic Impact Assessment 

 

Dave Swenson 

Regional Scientist 

Department of Economics 

Iowa State University 

February, 2002 

 

 

Regional analysts are often asked to assess local economic conditions. As 

regional and national economies change, and they continually do, we are called upon 

to try to assess and interpret the consequences. These consequences are sometimes 

called economic impacts, but we will make distinctions in this short report between 

reporting on the economic structure of an economy, identifying regional economic 

values or effects, and isolating economic impacts. 

 

There are several steps to describing and understanding regional economic 

structures, values, effects, and, if appropriate, economic impacts. In the first 

instance, we need to scrutinize the structure of the local economy. The structure of 

the local economy entails not only its obvious composition ñ agriculture, 

manufacturing, trade, etc. ñ but those industriesí relationships with each other locally 

and non-locally, and those industriesí relationship with households in the region of 

scrutiny. To do this we have come to rely on input-output accounts of local 

economies. 

 

At its most basic, an input-output (I-O) model is an accounting of 

transactions among industries, governments, households, and imports and exports. 

These types of models help us to track the flow of resources and commodities into 

and out of industrial production. They help us to identify the value and the extent of 

linkages among firms and industries in our study territory. When one firm makes a 

purchase of an input from another in a region, there is a linkage. The stronger the 

linkages, the more important the two (or more) industries are to each other and to the 

regional economy. Input-output models, allow us to identify the structure and the 

linkages that exist in the regional economy. It is that strength that allows us to take 

I-O modeling a step forward and compile economic effects and economic impact 

studies. We also produce an array of output from these models that helps us to 

further characterize the economy that we are studying. Among this output are 

sectoral multipliers. These will be explained later, but in short multipliers are a ratio 

 

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of regional economic value in relation to the particular industry that you may be 

scrutinizing. 

 

Once we understand industrial structures and linkages, we can then assess the 

overall importance of a set of industries in a region or the likely economic 

consequences if there is some change in production, earnings, or employment in 

these firms. We can also identify whether the effects are localized or regional. 

 

I. Kinds of Economic Measures and Key Terminology 

Input-output models (I-O) produce quite a bit of information for planners and 

decision makers. The more useful results for most projects are estimates of total 

industrial output, different kinds of income, value added, and jobs. 

 

Total industrial output for most industries is simply gross sales. For public 

or quasi-public institutions we include all public outlays, to include the value 

of government sales and other subsidies received. This helps us to isolate the 

current economic value of their output to the citizens or the area served. 

 

Employment compensation includes all salaries, wages, and wage-like 

benefits paid to workers. 

Proprietor incomes are the normal returns to sole proprietors. 

 

Other property incomes are composed of dividends, interests, and rents. 

They are the payments to owners of land and capital or to investors. 

 

Indirect tax payments are those to local, state, and the federal government 

that are part of the production or consumption process among households and 

industries. They are primarily use and sales taxes, along with excise taxes. 

These taxes are built into the value of the product that is produced or 

consumed (e.g., sales and use taxes on household consumption, sales taxes on 

office supplies, state and federal taxes on petroleum products). 

 

Value added is a measure of regional product. It includes all of the 

aforementioned employment compensation, incomes to sole proprietors, 

property incomes (dividends, interests, and rents), and indirect tax payments 

(primarily excise, use, and sales taxes paid by individuals to businesses). 

Value added is closely analogous to Gross Regional Product, and it is usually 

the preferred statistic for measuring productivity, income, and wealth 

produced in a region or by a type of manufacturing activity. 

 

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Jobs, the last measure, represent the number of positions in the economy, not 

the number of employed persons. The distinction is important. Many 

industries produce full-time jobs, primarily. Manufacturing firms, for 

example, tend only to hire full-time, full-year positions. Many other 

industries, like recreational services, retail sales, and dining and drinking 

establishments may hire a preponderance of part time or seasonal workers. 

 

We also get detailed breakdowns of these economic data into the direct, indirect, 

induced, and total economic effects. 

 

Direct effects refer to the operational characteristics of the firms or 

institutions that we are studying directly. 

 

Indirect effects measure the value of additional economic demands that the 

direct firms or institutions place on supplying industries in the region. When 

firms conduct business or public entities provide public goods, they must 

make many direct purchases from suppliers in the area. 

 

Induced effects accrue when workers in the direct and indirect industries 

spend their earnings on goods and services in the region. Induced effects can 

also be called household effects. 

 

Total economic effects are the sum of direct, indirect, and induced effects. 

They are all of the transactions attributable, either directly or indirectly, to the 

activities that we are measuring. 

 

The term multiplier or multiplier effect is often used when referring to economic 

effects or economic impacts. There are different ways in which industrial activity 

can be expressed. The most commonly used multiplier is a ratio of the total 

economic effects in a particular category divided by the direct effects. The 

multiplier tells you how much the overall economy changes per unit change in the 

direct effects (e.g., how much the remaining economy changes per change in a dollar 

of output, a dollar of personal income, or per job in the direct industries or 

institutions that we are analyzing). Multipliers help us to anticipate the potential 

change in the regional economy attributable to a change in direct activity in a 

particular industry. 

 

They are calculated two ways: one way isolates linkages with other industries. We 

can call this the inputs multiplier (or Type I); the second identifies all regional 

transactions to include linkages with other industries and the associated induced 

 

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spending by workers and households. This is called the total multiplier (or Type II 

or Type ìSAMî). 

 

Type I = (direct + indirect) / direct 

 

Type II = (direct + indirect + induced) / direct 

 

The Type I multiplier helps us to understand the value of industrial linkages by 

gauging input (indirect) sales, employment, and incomes in the region in relation to 

the industry that we are studying. The Type II multiplier helps us to understand how 

the whole economy might be related to the industry that we are studying. 

 

Multipliers can be instructive for anticipating economic growth, in the case of a new 

or expanding firm, and economic decline, in the case of a plant closing. Firms with 

strong linkages to area supplying firms or that pay relatively high earnings may yield 

comparatively higher multipliers. Firms that are otherwise not linked strongly to 

local suppliers or that pay lower than average wages will usually produce lower 

multipliers. Urban areas with their more highly developed and diversified 

economies have, on the average, much higher multipliers than rural or smaller urban 

 

 

areas. 

 

The generic term economic impact is frequently used to describe a set of 

economic activities in a region. This term also suffers from misapplication. A 

distinction must be made between a multiplier that expresses the value of a set of 

inter-industrial linkages in a region versus multipliers that can be interpreted to mean 

causation. 

 

To help illustrate this we need to be aware that there are several kinds of 

economic activities that may occur within a particular region. A useful distinction 

 

* Economic multipliers are often misunderstood or misused because users fail to account for regional 

production and cost of living differences, they use the wrong multiplier to describe a phenomenon, or 

they seek out the largest multiplier possible within a range of industrial activity without consideration 

of either the appropriateness of the application or of the actual scope of local production. 

For these reasons and others, there has been a generalized inflation in the reporting of multipliers by 

those not trained in their generation and interpretation. The multiplier that we produce is called the 

Type II multiplier. The multipliers for different categories of economic activity that are produced by 

our research are specific initially to region that we are studying and are not directly derivative of 

national averages. The resulting data are more sensitive to the kinds and amounts of earnings and 

incomes that are produced in the region than would be determined using national averages. 

 

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can be made between firms that produce goods or services for export or which 

otherwise attract outside income and firms that produce goods and services for local 

consumption (either by industries or by households). Firms that produce goods 

intended primarily for export sales generate economic impacts because outside 

demand supports local employment. 

 

If my town has a Tastee Freeze drive-in, it is probably primarily serving mostly local 

household demand. We can measure the overall size and contribution of the drive-in 

to the local economy, but the presence or absence of that particular place in the 

region does not necessarily present an economic impact -- one way or another the 

aggregate regional demand for cones and corn-dogs will be met somehow. What we 

can identify is the overall size and contribution of the firm to the local mix of 

economic activity. Accordingly, we can measure its economic effect or economic 

value in the region along with interdependencies that exist between it and other firms 

or service suppliers. In this instance, when we use I-O models we are isolating the 

strength of linkages that exist among industries and the firm that we are studying and 

the overall value (output, incomes, and jobs) of its production. 

 

In contrast, if my town has a rocking chair factory, then it is producing a 

good that is intended primarily for sales beyond my community. Money from 

outside of the region flows into our community and supports employment, industrial 

purchases, and household spending in my community. An external demand (for 

rocking chairs) is creating local economic activity. The associated local production 

that is linked to this demand is producing an export. In this instance we have a 

measurable and clear economic impact ñ were it not for the external demand for the 

locally produced product, the economic activity would not be in the community. We 

are declaring economic causality. The firm is causing a measurable set of economic 

activity in the region that would otherwise not have existed were it not for the 

external (exported) demand. 

 

Another clear example of economic impact can be associated with tourism. 

Here we know that large fractions of transactions in the region are attributable to 

some set of local attractions or events. Along with those direct purchases of 

entertainment or recreation, the initial economic impacts, are also collateral 

purchases of food, lodging, transportation, and other trade and services. These, too, 

are considered economic impacts for a region. We call them the visitor effects. 

 

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Large government institutions like a military base, hospital, school, or a 

prison also can represent a discernible economic impact to a region. Payments for 

institutional maintenance along with wages and salaries are primarily borne by nonresident 

tax payments. Non-residents are purchasing a locally produced good (public 

safety), the residual economic benefits of which remain largely in the community. 

Hence, in the last decade, the incredible inter-community bidding war for prisons. 

 

Another category where a local impact may be evident is called import 

substitution. If an indigenous firm can begin to produce for sale a commodity that 

people had been importing, then money that would otherwise have gone elsewhere 

stays in the community. A true import substitution can be counted as a localized 

economic impact. 

 

We are cautious about using the term economic impact when assessing the 

overall size or contribution of one industrial sector unless is very clear that the 

industrial activity is totally new to the area and the industrial activity will stimulate 

export sales or act as an import substitute. Otherwise, we prefer to use the terms 

economic value or economic effect. The distinction to our mind is not trivial. 

 

The Study Region 

 

Input-Output study regions can range from a single county, to multiple 

counties, to states, to multiple states, to the nation, depending on the nature of the 

study and the industries assessed. Care must be take when specifying an economic 

region. We are often called to assess county level impacts because for one reason or 

another that is the locus of all decision making and expected economic impacts. But 

county level analysis may not adequately capture the regional value of the economic 

change that we are trying to measure. Consequently, we believe that care should be 

given at the outset to adequately describing the economic territory that is being 

measured. It is usually more adequate to describe a collection of counties as 

comprising a study region instead of just one. It is usually inadequate to describe a 

set of non-adjacent counties as representing a study region. 

 

The Data 

 

The Iowa Department of Workforce Development, the U.S. Department of 

Labor, and the U.S. Department of Commerce periodically compile information on 

specific Iowa industries, their employment, and their production and payroll 

characteristics. A major data source for the state of Iowa is the ES-202 file (ES 

 

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means "employment security"), which isolates firm-level employment and the 

amount of payroll subject to withholding for social insurance tax purposes. 

Estimates of detailed industrial sector activity are generally not available at the 

county level. The state and federal agencies simply do not produce the estimates at 

that detail or there are so few firms that state and federal disclosure rules prevent 

reporting on the firms and their characteristics to protect their identities. 

 

Very reliable estimates are produced by a private firm, however. Minnesota 

Implan, Inc., (MIG) which produces the input-output modeling software that we use, 

annually produces a complete set of county level industrial accounts for the U.S. for 

up to 538 industrial, governmental, and household sectors. These data sets are 

manufactured from data from: 

 

o Benchmark input-output accounts of the U.S. economy (BEAóCommerce) 

o National income a product accounts (BEA -- Commerce) 

o Quinquennial industrial surveys (Commerce; USDA) 

o ES 202 files (BLS ñ IDWD) 

o County Business Patterns (Commerce) 

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